The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Debbie Allen.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 25.5%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQs. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

October 2016 Volume 54 Number 5

Editor's Page

In the opening section of this Editor's Page, "The Case for First Person," I explain why authors should use first person—and its close relation, active voice—when describing their research in manuscripts submitted to JOE. In "October JOE," I highlight articles that explore future directions for Cooperative Extension as well as articles that offer solutions to challenges that exist right now.


The Future of Extension Leadership Is Soft Leadership
Seger, Jamie; Hill, Paul
Over the next decade, if Extension can attract and retain young professionals, the current leadership will have the opportunity to select the most creative and bright among them to serve in leadership positions across the country. Extension needs a paradigm shift—the most influential leaders beat to a different drum. We must collectively adopt the leadership practices that work and stop doing things that do not add value. Future leaders must possess soft skills, be adept communicators, be proactive while quick to respond, and be willing to create a flattened organizational structure that encourages creativity and innovation from the bottom up.

Research In Brief

Assessing Nature-Based Recreation to Support Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability Extension Programs
Borisova, Tatiana; Bi, Xiang; Larkin, Sherry; Longanecker, James

Systematic Review of Physical Activity Objectives in Extension Strategic Plans: Findings and Implications for Improved Public Health Impact
Harden, Samantha M.; Lindsay, Anne; Everette, Alicia; Gunter, Katherine B.

Examining eXtension: Diffusion, Disruption, and Adoption Among Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Professionals
Taylor, Cayla; Miller, Greg

Costs of Pastured Broiler Operations Based on Data from Small-Scale Farms
Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Bryant, Richard

Evaluating an Integrated Nutrition and Parenting Education Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents
Kim, YaeBin

Assessment of the Impact of Viticulture Extension Programs in Virginia
Ferreira, Gustavo F. C.; Hatch, Tremain; Wolf, Tony K.

Identifying Invasive Species Educational Needs in Florida: Opportunities for Extension
Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

Effect of Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Training on Dairy Worker Knowledge and Welfare-Related Practices
Adams, Ashley E.; Ahola, Jason K.; Chahine, Mireille; Roman-Muniz, I. Noa

Master Gardener–Led Lessons Increase Knowledge in Gardening and Environmental Science for Iowa Summer Camp Youth
Black, Bruce J.; Haynes, Cynthia; Schrock, Denny; Duerfeldt, Kevin; Litchfield, Ruth

Slash and Learn: Revealing Stakeholder Knowledge, Support, and Preferred Communication Methods Relative to Wood-Based Biofuels Projects
Moroney, Jillian; Laninga, Tamara; Brooks, Randall

Ideas at Work

Locally Sourced Capital for Small Businesses in Rural Communities
Tampien, Jordan

Million Hearts: Key to Collaboration to Reduce Heart Disease
Brinkman, Patricia

Enhancing Extension and Research Activities Through the Use of Web GIS
Estwick, Noel M.; Griffin, Richard W.; James, Annette A.; Roberson, Samuel G.

Marathon Month Promotes Healthful Lifestyles for Extension Employees
Donaldson, Joseph L.; Bell, Beth A.; Toman, John J.; Hastings, Shirley

Tools of the Trade

Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes Through Ripple Effect Mapping
Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

Awards: Why You Want Them and How to Get Them
Carleo, Jenny; Kluchinski, Daniel

Developing Interactive Website Charts for Extension Clientele by Using Google Docs
Carls, Emily; Griffin, Terry

Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H
MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

Teaching Record-Keeping Skills to 4-H Youths Through Experiential Learning Techniques
Roland, Tyanne J.; Fisher, Meredith


Opportunities for and Barriers to Renewable Energy Outreach in Extension: A Mixed-Methods Needs Assessment
Thomas, Blake H.; Brain, Roslynn G.
This article illuminates the far-reaching applications of renewable energy programming for Extension's rural and urban clientele. An online survey of attendees of the inaugural National Extension Energy Summit revealed the need for increased energy programming in Extension. Following survey analysis, focus group interviews were conducted at the National Extension Sustainability Summit to determine the best way to address the reported need for energy programming. The results provide readers with an understanding of how renewable energy programming can expand the role and relevancy of Extension in the 21st century.

Growing Our Own: A Longitudinal Evaluation of a Professional Development Program for Early-Career 4-H Professionals
Varrella, Gary F.; Luckey, Brian P.; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Peters, Curt
We present the results of a longitudinal evaluation of the Western Region 4-H Institute, a 5-day training program designed to enhance the skill sets of early-career Extension professionals organized around the 4-H professional research, knowledge, and competencies model. Programs such as this often are assessed for their short-term relevance and effectiveness; we expanded the scope of our evaluation by following up with program participants 12 months after the program. Both short- and medium-term results indicated that networking and developing effective programs for youth were paramount for participants, suggesting the importance of providing professional development opportunities for early-career professionals.

Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships
Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly
RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3 program years (2013–2015). A dependent t-test on the mean composite scores for the group and calculation of individual preprogram-to-postprogram change scores showed that the program was effective overall. The RELAX: Alternatives to Anger curriculum is appropriate for workplace wellness programs, Extension programming for audiences such as farm families and 4-H volunteers, and Extension staff professional development.

Use of an Integrated Pest Management Assessment Administered Through TurningPoint as an Educational, Needs Assessment, and Evaluation Tool
Stahl, Lizabeth A. B.; Behnken, Lisa M.; Breitenbach, Fritz R.; Miller, Ryan P.; Nicolai, David; Gunsolus, Jeffrey L.
University of Minnesota educators use an integrated pest management (IPM) survey conducted during private pesticide applicator training as an educational, needs assessment, and evaluation tool. By incorporating the IPM Assessment, as the survey is called, into a widely attended program and using TurningPoint audience response devices, Extension educators can gather information from a significant number of farmers in a timely and efficient manner. Interspersing TurningPoint questions throughout presentations also increases audience engagement and overall quality of the training. For example, weed management programming efforts around herbicide-resistance management have been significantly influenced and enhanced by results of the IPM Assessment.

Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener
Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth
Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other evaluation methods. This article describes use of the Block Screener for Fruits, Vegetables, and Fiber (BSFVF) as a pre- and posteducation evaluation tool for an Extension nutrition education program. Findings showed that graduates’ intakes of fruits, vegetables, fiber, and certain nutrients significantly increased. Implications related to use of the BSFVF for evaluation of routine Extension nutrition education programming are discussed.

Factors Related to Motivating Adult Somalis with Refugee Status to Volunteer for 4-H
Mason, Mitchell D.; Ouellette, Kristy L.
Focus group interviews were held with adult Somali immigrants to assess their likelihood of volunteering for 4-H in Maine. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify best practices for engaging the growing Somali-Mainer population as a volunteer base. Results of the study demonstrate that Somali immigrant adults are willing to volunteer for 4-H when the outcome will be higher academic achievement for their children and when volunteering matches their cultural expectation of helping others. Additionally, Somali adults reported limitations related to their ability to volunteer, particularly language barriers and child-care commitments.

Evaluating the Feasibility of a Gardening and Nutrition Intervention with a Matched Contact-Control Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Youth
Alexander, Ramine; Hill, Jennie; Grier, Karissa; MacAuley, Lorien; McKenzie, Alisa; Totten, Tadashi; Porter, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie
The study reported here involved Cooperative Extension as a key research partner and was guided by a community-based participatory research approach and a feasibility study framework. The research objective was to assess four indicators of feasibility (i.e., acceptability, demand, implementation, and limited-effectiveness) of a gardening and nutrition program delivered at three youth community sites as compared to a matched contact-control physical activity intervention delivered at three different youth community sites. Conducted in a medically underserved region, the mixed-methods, quasi-experimental study revealed numerous opportunities for and barriers to increasing youths' willingness to try fruits and vegetables and increasing physical activity among youths.

The Journal of Extension

Debbie Allen
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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