The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension (JOE) creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of Extension.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. All submissions undergo initial review by the editor. If advanced by the editor, Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind peer review. Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed solely by the editor.

The acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to JOE is currently 24.5%.

For more information about JOE, consult About JOE and JOE FAQs. For information about writing for JOE, consult Guidance for Authors and all associated materials and resources.

April 2017 Volume 55 Number 2

Editor's Page

To provide clearer information about JOE and facilitate the process of publishing in JOE, I have revamped aspects of the JOE website. I describe the changes in "JOE Website Updates," the opening section of the Editor's Page. Articles in this issue address both fundamentals and contemporary realities of Extension work, and I preview some of these offerings in "April JOE."


The Need for Evidence-Based Outreach in the Current Food Safety Regulatory Landscape
Fouladkhah, Aliyar
As the most comprehensive legislation related to safety of U.S. agricultural production and food manufacturing in more than 70 years, the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to ensure safety of domestic and imported foods by shifting the focus of producers, processors, and federal regulatory agencies from response to prevention. Considering the diversity of industries in need of FSMA outreach and technical assistance, land-grant institutions and Extension are presented with a challenge and historic opportunity. Systematic and evidence-based needs assessment would enable Extension educators to efficiently triage resources to assist the most vulnerable Extension stakeholders.

Research In Brief

Using Egocentric Networks to Illustrate Information Seeking and Sharing by Alfalfa Farmers in Wyoming
Noy, Shiri; Jabbour, Randa

Changes in the Use of Precision Farming Information Sources Among Cotton Farmers and Implications for Extension
Edge, Brittani; Velandia, Margarita; Lambert, Dayton M.; Roberts, Roland K.; Larson, James A.; English, Burton C.; Boyer, Christopher; Rejesus, Roderick; Mishra, Ashok

Show Me the Money: Impact of County Funding on Retention Rates for Extension Educators
Feldhues, Katherine; Tanner, Timothy

Multiple-Methods Needs Assessment of California 4-H Science Education Programming
Worker, Steven M.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Ambrose, Andrea; Brian, Kelley; Schoenfelder, Emily; Smith, Martin H.

Extension Wellness Ambassadors: Individual Effects of Participation in a Health-Focused Master Volunteer Program
Washburn, Lisa T.; Traywick, LaVona; Copeland, Lauren; Vincent, Jessica

A National Perspective on Women Owning Woodlands (WOW) Networks
Huff, Emily S.

Determinants of Downtown Image and Retail Patronage: A Case of Fargo, North Dakota
Lee, Jaeha; Park, Kwangsoo

Ideas at Work

Do You YouTube? The Power of Brief Educational Videos for Extension
Langworthy, Sara

Strengthening Families Through a Re-envisioned Approach to Fatherhood Education
Bates, James S.; Wilkinson, Deanna L.; McCartan, Jason Paul; Remley, Daniel T.; Light, Mark D.; Crawford, David C.; Dellifield, Jami

Fork2Farmer: Enabling Success of Small Farms Through Partnerships with Well-Known Chefs and the Tourism Sector
Morais, Duarte; Jakes, Susan; Bowen, Becky; Massey Lelekacs, Joanna

Expanding Global Mindedness Through a 4-H International Village
Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills
Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

A Practical Method for Collecting Social Media Campaign Metrics
Gharis, Laurie W.; Hightower, Mary F.

Tools of the Trade

Shark Bite Meetings for Creative Program Planning
Pellien, Tamara; Yergeau, Steven

Empirical Questionnaire Methods for Fund-Raising Campaign Preparedness in Extension
Comley Adams, Catherine; Butler, Douglass A.

Twitter Chats: Connect, Foster, and Engage Internal Extension Networks
Seger, Jamie; Hill, Paul; Stafne, Eric; Swadley, Emy

Healthful Homes for Urban Youths and Families
Bothell, Joan; Gaudio, Mary-Margaret; Gray, Sharon

Fitbit and Fitabase Technology: Tracking and Evaluating Youth Physical Activity
Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Dunker, Tara; Chai, Weiwen; Krehbiel, Michelle

Crowdfunding in Extension: Leveraging Relationships to Offset Declines in Traditional Funding
Hill, Paul; Swadley, Emy; Esplin, Kaleb

Improving the Impact of Extension Through the Use of Anticipation Guides
Smith, Rebecca C.; Lemley, Stephanie M.

Tools for Using Citizen Science in Environmental, Agricultural, and Natural Resources Extension Programs
Stofer, Kathryn A.


Measuring Economic Impact Through Adoption: A Study of the Multi-County New Landowners Educational Series
Shackelford, Philip; Pesl Murphrey, Theresa; Dozier, Monty; Ripley, Jeff; Lockett, Landry
The Multi-County New Landowners Educational Series is an Extension education program offered in Austin, Colorado, Fayette, and Washington Counties in Texas. We sent an online survey to past participants of the program (those who participated between 2006 and 2010; N = 162). Findings revealed significant adoption of several best management practices that resulted in perceived increases in value per acre of participants' properties, with the grand mean increase being $26.57 per acre. The data we collected illustrate the need for continued evaluation of the economic impact of Extension programs. In addition to discussing our methodology and findings, we identify opportunities and challenges related to documenting such impact.

Demonstrating Impact Through Replicable Analysis: Implications of an Evaluation of Arkansas's Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program
Phelps, Josh; Brite-Lane, Allison; Crook, Tina; Hakkak, Reza; Fuller, Serena
The evaluation described in this article focused on the effectiveness of Arkansas's Extension-based Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) but demonstrates an analytic approach that may be useful across Extension programs. We analyzed data from 1,810 Arkansas EFNEP participants' entry and exit Behavior Checklists to assess reliability of the checklist tool and explore behavior changes. The results demonstrate continued effectiveness of Arkansas EFNEP in delivering impactful health-related programming. Details of our process may provide direction for program leaders in determining which programmatic areas need attention to improve outcomes and in identifying best practices within particular program areas.

Participatory Evaluation and Learning: A Case Example Involving Ripple Effects Mapping of a Tourism Assessment Program
Bhattacharyya, Rani; Templin, Elizabeth; Messer, Cynthia; Chazdon, Scott
Engaging communities through research-based participatory evaluation and learning methods can be rewarding for both a community and Extension. A case study of a community tourism development program evaluation shows how participatory evaluation and learning can be mutually reinforcing activities. Many communities value the opportunity to reflect on progress made toward development goals and efforts that help accomplish these goals. Application of select evaluation and teaching tools helps stakeholders in a community refine definitions of success. By adopting the methods outlined in this article, Extension educators and program evaluators can deepen their engagement with partner communities in a variety of realms.

Defining and Developing Curricula in the Context of Cooperative Extension
Smith, Martin H.; Worker, Steven M.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Ambrose, Andrea; Brian, Kelley; Schoenfelder, Emily
Effective curricula are considered to be the cornerstone of successful programming in Extension. However, there is no universal operationalized definition of the term curriculum as it applies to Extension. Additionally, the development of curricula requires a systematic process that takes into account numerous factors. We provide an operational definition of curriculum by describing the parts of a curriculum, discussing the organization of those elements, and recommending theoretical frameworks that complement the learn-by-doing approach used in Extension. We also describe strategies to guide curriculum development, adaptation, and evaluation that will help advance the potential of Extension curricula to achieve their intended outcomes.

Evaluation of an Extension-Delivered Resource for Accelerating Progress in Childhood Obesity Prevention: The BEPA-Toolkit
Gunter, Katherine B.; Abi Nader, Patrick; Armington, Amanda; Hicks, John C.; John, Deborah
The Balanced Energy Physical Activity Toolkit, or the BEPA-Toolkit, supports physical activity (PA) programming via Extension in elementary schools. In a pilot study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the BEPA-Toolkit as used by teachers through Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education partnerships. We surveyed teachers (n = 57) regarding their use of the kit and examined associations between teacher use of the kit and objectively measured PA of students (n = 1,103). Over 80% of responders reported that the BEPA-Toolkit provided additional opportunities for PA, and children regularly exposed to the kit were more active than those having less exposure to it. The BEPA-Toolkit may support PA opportunities in underresourced school settings.

The Journal of Extension

Debbie Allen
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

Subscribe to JOE

The Journal of Extension

Extension Journal, Inc.

About the Journal of Extension