The Journal of Extension - www.joe.org

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Debbie Allen.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 24.5%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQs. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

February 2017 Volume 55 Number 1

Editor's Page

In the opening section of this Editor's Page, "JOE by the Numbers 2016," I report JOE author, acceptance rate, and readership data. In "Duplicate Publication," I alert prospective authors to an upcoming clarification of JOE policy. And in "February JOE," I preview articles that describe creative strategies for targeting specific audiences, expanding Extension's reach, identifying knowledge needs, evaluating both the external work and internal workings of Extension, and engaging with youths.

Commentary

Evaluating Extension Impact on a Nationwide Level: Focus on Programs or Concepts?
Wise, Dena K.
As agencies with minimal national reach and capacity grow more sophisticated in capturing public and private funding for outreach, Extension finds itself competing for national recognition of its scope and capacity. Because of the need for that recognition, it is increasingly important that states look beyond their individual systems of evaluation to cooperate in demonstrating the full extent of the Extension network for national stakeholders and funders. To do that, Extension must implement a nationwide system of evaluation, and that system should be built around the teaching of common concepts, rather than the delivery of common programs.

Research In Brief

Capitalizing on Multidimensionality in Survey Instruments to Ensure Delivery of Relevant Extension Programming
Romich, Eric

Willingness to Pay for One-on-One Farm Business Programs
Cannella, Mark; Dolce, Michael; Kitsos, Tony

Opportunities for Meeting Educational Needs of Aging Adults: Listening to Limited-Resource Older Homeowners
Parrott, Kathleen R.; Lee, Sung-jin; Giddings, Valerie L.; Robinson, Sheryl Renee; Brown, Gene

Extension's Role in Developing Opinion Leaders to Drive Water Conservation
Ryan, Christopher; Lamm, Alexa

What Influences Farmers to Use Farm Safety and Health Information?
Burgus, Shari; Duysen, Ellen; Wendl, Mary

Evaluation of Components of Volunteerism in Master Horseman Program Graduates
Walker, Neely; Cater, Melissa; Davis, Debra; Fox, Janet

Assessment of an Online Nematology Training for County Extension Agents
Gentry, Mia; Edgar, Leslie D.; Graham, Donna L.; Kirkpatrick, Terry

Ideas at Work

Baby Animal Days: An Innovative Approach to Funding and Marketing Urban Extension Programs
Smith, Justen; Goodspeed, Jerry; Gunnell, JayDee; Olsen, Shawn

Using Pop Culture to Teach Youths Conflict Resolution, Healthful Lifestyles, Disaster Preparedness, and More
Torretta, Alayne; Black, Lynette Ranney

Applying 4-H Judging Strategies to Board, Dice, and Card Games: Developing Skills in Urban and Suburban Youths
Brandt, Brian; Stowe, James

Simulating Money Management and Life Skills with Prison Populations
Richel, Karen

Tools of the Trade

Evaluate Naturally and Quickly with Just-in-Time Program Evaluation
Franz, Nancy K.; Munsell, John F.; Brown, Tiffany N.; Chittum, Holly K.

Organizational Capacity Survey: Capturing an Extension System's Current State and Pinpointing Areas for Improvement
Peterson, Donna J.; Downey, Laura H.; Hardman, Alisha

What Is Professional Development Worth? Calculating the Value of Onboarding Programs in Extension
Harder, Amy; Hodges, Alan; Zelaya, Priscilla

Increasing the Capacity of Social Media to Extend Your Outreach
Brinkman, Patricia; Kinsey, Joanne; Henneman, Alice

A Modified Importance-Performance Framework for Evaluating Recreation-Based Experiential Learning Programs
Pitas, Nicholas A.; Murray, Alison; Olsen, Max; Graefe, Alan

Prairie Strips for Sediment and Nutrient Control and Biodiversity
Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Helmers, Matthew J.; Youngquist, Timothy D.; Johnson, Mark S.

Risk Scenario Planning Tool for Education on Livestock Risk Protection Insurance for Feeder Cattle
Parsons, Jay; Hewlett, John P.

Putting Pesticides into Perspective: Demonstrations for Educating Extension Clientele
Young, Curtis E.

Development of a Health Survey Instrument for 5- to 8-Year-Old Youths
Neelon, Marisa; Brian, Kelley; Iaccopucci, Anne M.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

A Theoretically Based, Easy-to-Use Tool for Promoting Goal-Setting Behaviors in Youths
James, Anthony G.

Features

Using Cluster Analysis to Target Educational Messages to Consumers
Kratsch, Heidi; Skelly, JoAnne; Hill, George; Donaldson, Susan
Cluster analysis is a common marketing tool for identifying groups of customers, clients, or consumers similar enough in demographics, behaviors, or attitudes to warrant specialized methods for targeting them with a desired message. We used cluster analysis on data from an integrated pest management (IPM) survey of the general public to categorize groups by their similarities with regard to IPM-related attitudes and behaviors. We describe how we used these data to target critical IPM messages in ways most likely to elicit positive behavior change. The methods we used could be applied in many disciplines to target Extension educational messages to diverse client groups.

Climate-Related Risks and Management Issues Facing Agriculture in the Southeast: Interviews with Extension Professionals
Diehl, David C.; Sloan, Nicole L.; Garcia, Elder P.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Dourte, Daniel R.; Fraisse, Clyde W.
To explore Extension professionals' perceptions of the potential impact of climate variability and climate change on agriculture and to identify the top climate-related issues facing farmers, we conducted interviews with agricultural Extension personnel from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. Of those interviewed, 92% believed climate change will affect agriculture a moderate amount or a great deal. Qualitative analyses revealed that the Extension professionals considered scarcity of water resources, temperature fluctuations, pest and disease pressures, forecast challenges, seasonal variability, and adaptation strategies as among the most important climate-related issues affecting agriculture in the Southeast.

Crop Consultants as "Climate Consultants": An Extension Opportunity for Climate Change Communication
Bernacchi, Leigh A.; Wulfhorst, J. D.
Extension personnel can augment climate change communication and efforts to decrease climate-related agricultural risks by engaging with producers' trusted information sources, including crop consultants. Through a survey of inland Pacific Northwest wheat producers and in-depth interviews with area crop consultants, we examined relationships among producers, crop consultants, and climate change education and adaptation. We found that crop consultants are poised to communicate climate change information to producers, given their strong relationships with producers, practice of promoting adaptive management based on science, and ability to connect climate change to immediate on-farm practices. However, success in leveraging crop consultants to achieve widespread climate change adaptation will depend largely on Extension's presenting the topic to them in accessible ways.

Assessing Public Issues Knowledge and Needs of Extension Agents in Florida
Gay, Keegan D.; Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.
It has been argued that to remain relevant in today's society, Extension must expand its role to provide public issues education. We conducted a web-based survey to determine whether Extension agents in Florida were prepared to deal with contentious issues. Survey respondents identified issues affecting their clientele, levels of frequency with which they addressed the issues, and self-perceived levels of knowledge related to the issues. Results were analyzed by agent type (i.e., programmatic area). Results revealed that the issues of immigration, crop diseases, and food security held particular potential for improvement.

Assessing Extension Agents' Nematology Knowledge Needs and Related Resource Preferences: Implications for Trainings on Complex Agricultural Topics
Gentry, Mia; Edgar, Leslie D.; Graham, Donna L.; Kirkpatrick, Terry
Plant pathology researchers have identified a need to expand knowledge of nematology, and nematode control options in Arkansas are limited. Thus, relevant in-service trainings are warranted. In response to the plant pathology researchers' findings and findings promoting the use of technology in training Extension agents, we explored agricultural agents' nematology-related knowledge needs and their perceptions and preferences regarding relevant resources and training delivery methods. We found that county agents in Arkansas need nematology training and resources, have positive perceptions of existing training methods and materials, and are comfortable with job-related technologies, such as the Internet, computers, smartphones, and tablets. These results provide support for developing technology-based training to address nematology and other complex agricultural production topics.

The Journal of Extension

Debbie Allen
Editor
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Webmaster
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Treasurer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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