August 2005 // Volume 43 // Number 4
Some JOE Style Points: Capitalization & et al.
"Some JOE Style Points" talks
about how to use "et al." and capitalization in JOE articles. "August
JOE" highlights the two Commentaries in the August issue, a Tools of
the Trade article, and the range of other topics covered.
Extension's Response to an Un-Natural Disaster: Enlisting Your
Support for Military Youth and Families
The situation created
in families and communities by deployment of active duty, National Guard,
and Reserve military service members demands immediate attention. The author
shares her experiences as a 4-H Military Liaison and encourages readers to
become involved with Operation: Military Kids efforts in their states.
Participate in the JOE Discussion Forum on "Extension's Response to an Un-Natural Disaster: Enlisting Your
Support for Military Youth and Families"
A Diversified Portfolio of Scholarship: The Making of a Successful
In today's academic environment,
universities expect that Extension educators will engage in scholarship.
Academic leaders have attempted to define the scholarship of Extension for
two decades, but confusion prevails about the specific accomplishments required
to meet the expectations. The time has arrived for the Extension system to
set the standard of excellence in scholarship as well as performance. This
commentary proposes that a diversified portfolio of scholarship can assist
in establishing and sustaining the standard for scholarship and advocates
creating a culture for scholarship continuity and consistency across the
Participate in the JOE Discussion Forum on "A Diversified Portfolio of Scholarship: The Making of a Successful
Organizational Evolution: Applying Genetic Principles to the
Management of Extension Systems
Insight into organizational management
can be gained by looking at natural systems. Ideas in Extension organizations
are analogous to the genetic makeup of populations of organisms. Genetic
makeup determines the chemistry, size and behavior of these populations.
Similarly, ideas in organizations determine the future size, activities and
effectiveness. This article first examines the principles of population genetics
and how these principles drive genetic change. This concept is then extended
to Extension to demonstrate how ideas appear to follow similar laws. Finally,
this concept is used to derive suggestions for improving effectiveness of
Demographic Differences of 4-H Volunteers, Agents, and State
Volunteerism Specialists: Implications for Volunteer Administration
A national study explored the demographic
similarities and differences among volunteers, agents, and state specialists
in the 4-H Youth Development program. All three groups are primarily married
females, in their 40's, who work full-time. Agents were both significantly
younger and had volunteered fewer years than either volunteers or state specialists.
Volunteers worked with fewer adult and teen volunteers than did agents or
specialists. Both 4-H participation and level of education were linear, with
state specialists having the highest 4-H membership rate and educational
level. Volunteers were more actively involved in volunteering for other organizations
besides 4-H than either agents or specialists.
Wonderwise 4-H: Following in the Footsteps of Women Scientists
Wonderwise 4-H: Women in Science Learning
Kits, recently included in the National 4-H Curriculum Collection and widely
tested by 4-H leaders, have positively affected youths' perspectives on science,
scientists, and scientific work. Adult leaders who used the multi-media, inquiry-based
Wonderwise 4-H kits completed a Web survey describing the impact of the kits
on youth. It indicated that the kits increased youth's interest and understanding
of science, broadened their view of scientists, and opened their eyes to the
possibility of science in their own futures. More information about Wonderwise
4-H and downloadable activities are available at <wonderwise.unl.edu>.
Idaho 4-H Impact Study
measured the impact that the 4-H experience has on the quality of life of young
people. Data were collected from 5th, 7th, and 9th grade students in Idaho.
Students were selected from four randomly selected schools in each of the 16
randomly selected counties across the state. There were 3,601 surveys returned
from 53 schools. Youngsters who have participated in 4-H for 2 years or more
are less likely to engage in "at-risk" behaviors such as drinking
alcohol, shoplifting, drug use, damaging property, or smoking cigarettes than
their non- 4‑H classmates.
Underserved Forest Landowner Workshops: Opportunities for Landowners
Sixteen workshops were conducted in
2003 for underserved forest landowners in the south-central U.S. An underserved
landowner was defined as one who has not recently utilized various federal,
state, or local resources. Workshop topics included: 1) Landowners Perspective,
2) Ownership Issues, 3) Marketing and Environmental Issues, and 4) Economics
of Forestry. Workshop attendance averaged 81 participants and was directly
related to the number of letters mailed to landowners. Participants owned
107,153 acres of forestland and estimated the value of information received
at $6.8 million. This workshop format can serve as a regional and national
model for reaching underserved forest landowners.
Public Law 106-393 (Title III) Forestry Extension Programming
The passage of Public Law 106-393 (PL
106-393), the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act in
2000 provided the Forestry Extension program at MSU with an unprecedented
opportunity to secure long term funding for programs in select counties across
the state. During fiscal years 2002 and 2003, over 1.1 million dollars have
been received. This paper will discuss PL 106-393 and its' impact on the
Forestry Extension program at MSU. The applicability of the MSU approach
to obtaining to other states around the country will also be discussed.
Barriers to Change: Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Sustainable
Manure Management Practices
Manure management is important in Michigan.
There is need for better understanding of why farmers do not sustainably
utilize manure nutrients. Some livestock farms could benefit if neighboring
farmers used their manure. A study explored the potential for manure transfer
from livestock farms to fields of neighboring farms. A mailed survey was
used to collect data. Surveys were analyzed to determine frequencies of responses
among respondents. Comparisons were also made between livestock and nonlivestock
farmers. Results suggest neighbor complaints and odor represent significant
barriers to manure exchange. Concerns about spreading weed seeds and economic
issues are also significant barriers.
Research in Brief
Preparing Extension Educators for a Global Community
What amounts of international involvement,
including travel, language, and programming experience do Purdue Extension
educators in Indiana possess? What types of training do Extension educators
feel they need in order to develop international related programming and
to work effectively with diverse clientele? How do Extension educators want
to learn about international aspects of Extension? What will Extension educators
identify as the most significant barrier for integrating an international
perspective into future Extension efforts? The study described here reports
the findings from 171 Purdue Extension educators in Indiana regarding their
staff development needs and international Extension.
Assessing the Educational Needs and Interests of the Hispanic
Population: The Role of Extension
Hispanics are the fastest growing minority
group in the United States and face unique problems concerning language and
citizenship. However, institutions do not yet know how best to deliver services
to this group or understand what services are needed. Although many programs
designed for Hispanics exist, especially in urban areas, there is little
documentation that they have been evaluated and are successful in serving
the population they target. The focus group study described here was conducted
to better understand what kind of information Hispanics in an urban setting
are seeking and how best to disseminate information to them.
Consumer Knowledge and Perceptions About Organic Food
Oregon food shoppers' knowledge and
perceptions about organic food were assessed in a statewide phone survey
conducted 3 months after adoption of USDA's National Organic Program standards.
Of the 637 interviewees, 77% reported household purchase of organic food
in the past 6 months. Those with household members in environmental organizations
were significantly more likely to purchase organic food frequently. About
two-thirds gave positive word associations with "organic." Forty
percent were aware that the USDA standards had gone into effect. Trust in
the accuracy of the USDA organic label varied. Environmentally minded consumers
are a potential organic market if trust is maintained.
Using a Nutrition Web Site as a Resource for County Educators:
Evaluating Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service's Experience
The Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
Nutrition Web Site was evaluated by Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
County Extension Educators in terms of Web site characteristics, information
sections, information formats, and uses of the information immediately after
and 6 months after an in-service training on the Web site. Immediately after
training, educators appeared to be most interested in quickly using Web site
information in educational programs. Six months after training, educators
appeared to begin to use the Web site as a source of current information
that could be used to address immediate consumer questions and be used for
Manure Use Planning: An Evaluation of a Producer Training Program
A training program for producers in
manure use planning was evaluated. The potential for runoff nutrient loss
to surface water can reduced and the value of manure increased through better
planning of manure use. Training was conducted throughout Nebraska in 2002
and 2003. Livestock producers who attended evaluated the event at the end
of the last class. The need for and impact of the training was greater for
continuing operational and maintenance skills of manure utilization that
are regularly needed for strategic planning skills. We recommend that training
focus primarily on operational and maintenance skills.
Risk Factors Affecting High School Drop Out Rates and 4-H Teen
The drop out rates of teens in high
school is of great interest to educators across the country. An analysis
has been done to identify the risk factors related to high school drop out
rates. Those risk factors are then related to what educators can do to improve
teen programming efforts as well as decrease high school drop out rates.
Analysis of several databases was performed to compare drop out information.
By determining high school drop out risk factors and relating these data
to 4-H programming, we can begin to draw conclusions and plan strategies.
Implementing a Needs Assessment for Long-Term Strategic Planning
in 4-H Horticulture Programming
A needs assessment was implemented for
long-term strategic planning in 4-H horticulture programming. 4-H agents,
Agriculture and Natural Resource agents, and Master Gardener Coordinators
were surveyed regarding horticulture programs, areas for new programming,
and available resources and resource needs. Interviews were conducted with
staff of public gardens in Virginia indicating potential for programming
partnerships. Directors of 4-H camps expressed interest in curriculum modified
to their time constraints. Results identified areas for growth and needs
for improved communication and resource sharing. A Web site was developed
and new position recommended.
Ideas at Work
Autobiography Workshop: Personal Narrative as a Wellness Tool
for the Elderly
With the growth of the aging population,
Extension is trying to provide meaningful educational programming for seniors.
The University of Nevada, Cooperative Extension created the Senior Autobiography
Workshop to help older adults write about their lives in a way that can enhance
social and family networks and improve seniors' self-esteem, important factors
in maintaining physical and mental well-being. Both the process of life review
and the autobiographical final product can produce great mental and emotional
benefits. Workshop attendees report having gained insight on the value of
their life within the context of their family structure.
Effectiveness of a Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable
Americans do not ordinarily consume
the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables, thereby placing them at
risk for the development of chronic diseases. EFNEP and the South East Produce
Council implemented a program designed to increase consumption of fruits
and vegetables by low-income audiences reached through EFNEP. Pre-program
surveys provided a profile of the families' fresh produce purchases and consumption
level. Post-program data indicates that the program participants made a significant
increase in their consumption of fruits and vegetables.
What Is Forestry: A Multi-State, Web-Based Forestry Education
The What Is Forestry: Connecting Communities
project promotes forestry education and connects students to a greater appreciation
of local and national forests and their cultural connections with communities.
Through integrating activities including science, photography, arts, music,
math, and Internet computer technology, students were challenged to observe
and explain the forests in which they live and communicate this understanding
to students in a sister school in another state. The analysis of the pre-
and post-evaluations indicated that there were significant changes in student
opinions about forestry.
Use of a Cattle Feeding Profitability Prediction Contest in
Beef Extension Programming
A beef cattle feeding profitability
predication contest was established in conjunction with the Mississippi Farm
to Feedlot Project, an 11-year-old program similar to many cattle feeding
Extension programs offered across the nation. This contest was initiated
to demonstrate the value of knowing the genetic and profit potential of calves
prior to deciding to feed these animals or market them at weaning or after
stocker grazing. It also stimulated renewed interest in the Mississippi Farm
to Feedlot Project and expanded the audience reached by this educational
effort. Results of this contest indicate that it was successful in achieving
Demonstrating Manure Spreader Calibration at Field Days
Calibration of a manure spreader was demonstrated
at field days. Data collected showed limited capability of farmers to estimate
manure application rates just based on their experience and the importance
of calibration. Only 13% estimated at or near the actual application rate (±1
ton). Some (22%) estimated high rates, with two estimating four times the actual
application rate. Most (65%) underestimated the rate, with 50% estimating less
than one-half the actual application rate. The tendency to underestimate manure
application and therefore over-apply manure reinforces the need to calibrate
spreading equipment as a part of a manure management plan.
Tools of the Trade
More Tips: What If a Cooperative Extension Professional Must
Work With Two or More Institutional Review Boards?
This article focuses on working with
more than one IRB at a time regarding one project. It is a follow-up to a
series of four recent articles designed to help Extension professionals navigate
the university IRB process. The authors use their experience with a project
funded by a federal government agency to illustrate some of the issues and
tips for success.
Voices from the Past, Wisdom for the Present and Future: Capturing
and Learning from Oral History
"What is oral history?" and "How
can capturing oral history enhance Extension program development and impact
reporting?" are two of the questions explored in this article. In addition,
the process and steps for completing an oral history project are outlined.
Selecting Recipes to Enhance Educational Programming--Application
of Formative Research Methods
Recipe demonstration often accompanies
educational programming. Formative research methods can be used when selecting
recipes to enhance an educational experience. The use of recipes and food
demonstrations should be consistent with identified educational goals. Our
process resulted in a stepwise culling of recipes and the identification
of recipe categories that supported our learning goal. We enabled input from
peer educators, agents, and clients by soliciting informal and formal feedback
through methods such as survey instruments, informal discussions, and structured
interviews. This and similar approaches to recipe selection may engage educators
in the judicious use of recipes to augment educational programming.
An Affirmative Approach to Parental Involvement in Youth Programs
In youth development programs,
it is preferred that any involvement of parents be child oriented. Adults
stuck in parent-oriented behavior inhibit their child from having a positive
experience in the program. This article demonstrates how adults showing parent-oriented
behavior can be motivated to shift to child-oriented behavior within the
boundaries of the program. New Jersey 4-H Leader Training Series provides
tools needed for professionals that result in positive relationships among
volunteers and parents. This holistic approach views all the attributes of
parents, whereby professionals can spin negative behaviors positively to
support the program.
Agriculture Environmental Management System Baseline Protocols
The evaluation of agriculture environmental
programs and the subsequent acceptance by the agriculture industry will only
have credibility if they are based on the collection of comparable information
of known quality backed up by vigorous analysis and research. To this end,
Utah State University Extension Agriculture Environmental Management Systems
(AEMS) has adapted a common framework for collecting AEMS design and performance
information. The article is to describes this framework.
An Extension Perspective on Monitoring Pesticide Resistance
Appropriate application of pesticides
should include regular measurement of target insect susceptibility. This
article reports outreach activities, emphasizing Web-based communications,
with Florida mosquito control programs focusing on measuring the response
of mosquitoes to pesticides. The benefits of this approach are reduced reliance
on chemical control by considering alternatives such as larviciding and source
reduction, as well as economic savings, when mosquito control programs use
pesticides at minimum rates that give maximum control.
Using a Poster Contest to Educate Children About Radon
This article presents a strategy to
involve children in radon education through a poster contest. This educational
effort completed its third year, sponsored by the Healthy Indoor Air for
America's Homes program in collaboration with government partners. The contest
is directed at middle school children with goals that include fostering coalitions
between local radon partners and state radon programs, creating local publicity
and awareness about radon, increasing radon testing, and publicizing Radon
Action Month. Student posters are judged on accuracy, visual communication
of topic, and reproducibility. The two national winners are recognized in