August 1996 // Volume 34 // Number 4
The Scholarship of Extension
Discusses Rice-Boyer concept of scholarship as it applies to Extension and suggests that the work of Extension occupies all four quadrants of the Rice-Boyer concept.
Public Perception of Extension
This article addresses the issues of how people's perception and use of Extension have changed over a 13-year period. Telephone surveys of the U.S. population in 1982 and again in 1995 asked about the awareness and use of Extension. In addition, the 1995 study documented desired spending support for the seven base programs. Awareness of Extension has remained high, although buoyed by 4-H's high visibility. Annual use of Extension registered a decline. Funding support was found to be the greatest for programs in youth and family issues, as well as in natural resources.
Clients Reach Higher Levels of Cognition Through Publications
Extension, like other educational organizations, uses publications to teach clients, especially when personal contact isn't possible. How much do people learn from these publications? This experimental study looked at two Extension publications on water quality and their effect on cognition of Extension clients in Scioto County, Ohio. Cognition was defined using the Newcomb-Trefz model. Clients who read the publications showed greater cognition overall and higher levels of cognition when asked about the subject matter than those who did not read the publications.
Building Bridges: Leadership Development for the 21st Century
The "Building Bridges" Leader/Mentor Project developed a model leadership intern experience with emphasis on involvement of participants from minority groups. During the past three year agricultural and home economics faculty have been matched with 21 undergraduate agricultural and home economics majors for an eight-week summer internship in a county Extension office working on objectives focused on leadership development and increasing awareness of cultural diversity. Leadership skill development was clearly evident as measured by the Youth Leadership Life Skills Development Scale. Quantitative and Qualitative data indicated high levels of satisfaction and support for program continuation.
Research in Brief
Characteristics of Farmer-To-Consumer Direct Market Customers: An Overview
There has been no concentrated effort in the past to examine characteristics of direct marketing consumers to help the producers better serve the needs of consumers. This study provides an overview of various characteristics of farmer-to-consumer direct market consumers from a mail survey conducted in 1994. The results show that the average number visits per month to a direct marketing facility was between one and two. The average dollar amount spent per visit at direct marketing facilities ranged from $11 to $19. The majority of the respondents expected better quality of produce at direct marketing facilities than at supermarkets.
Ideas at Work
DAIRY-MAP: A Cooperative Program Brings Individual Attention to Dairymen
A dairy management analysis program (DAIRY-MAP) is available to Georgia dairy producers. Individual producers discuss management topics of interest with a team of Extension dairy specialists. The program is a cooperative effort between specialists and agents. Specialists provide support materials including graphs and reports that are utilized in herd management analysis. Agents contact interested producers and schedule meetings. This program demonstrates the delivery of practical information through the county Extension agent and its application to specific producers.
Using Community Development Simulations in Divergent International Contexts
Developing educational tools for community development which are applicable in a cross cultural context is a challenge. This project shows the value of simulations in teaching the complexities of economic, environmental and political issues at the local level. Key to developing extension materials appropriate for use in cross cultural contexts is the flexibility of design and ability to easily adapt to differing contexts. Successful use of the Community Land Use and Economics Simulation (CLUES) in the Slovak context is attributed to its open design which allowed players to create options not originally envisioned.
Changing for the Future
This article describes the USDA/Army School-Age and Teen Project. This project provides one example of how USDA/Extension is changing to meet the needs of other government organizations. It also examines benefits of such national partnerships for Cooperative Extension at the national, state, and county levels.
Tools of the Trade
PASSing the Financial Management Interest Exam
Getting and keeping the interest of agricultural producers in financial management workshops is a challenge. This article offers suggestions to meet the challenge.
California Issues New Book on Community Intervention
A new book from the University of California, Davis, focuses on how university educators and researchers tackle community problems. Extension county advisors and specialists relate their experiences in six case studies. Copies of the book, "Community and University: Case Studies and Commentary on University of California Cooperative Extension Interventions," are available for sale.
Professional Opportunities with an International Perspective
The Association for International and Extension Education and the Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education are ways for interested Extension professionals to keep abreast of developments in international development work. Information abut the association and its journal is offered.
Environmental Stewardship Through Operation Quackback
Improving the public's perception of farmers through environmental stewardship. Parishes (counties) in South Louisiana have initiated a program which provides wetland habitat for various waterfowl; reduces red rice and other weed seeds through the foraging behavior of waterfowl; and demonstrates the farmer's concern for environmental and conservation issues. Operation Quackback began in one south Louisiana Parish in 1993 and involved eight farmers with 1500 acres in the program. The program is now conducted in 13 parishes involving 45,00 acres. The Cooperative Extension Service has been instrumental in initiating and conducting the program.