Summer 1991 // Volume 29 // Number 2
This issue of the Journal has three major themes: relations with the private sector, alternative communication methods, and international linkages.
Videotape Education on a Controversial Issue-Pesticides in Food
Using an interdisciplinary team approach, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension produced an educational package (videotape and bulletin) targeted for consumers and home gardeners to promote the concept of rationale alertness about the use of pesticides in the food chain. For the issue of pesticide residues in the food chain, we believe a logical role for Cooperative Extension is to present both sides of the issue and allow producers and consumers to take responsibility for informed choice. By its very nature, such a role demands the use of an interdisciplinary approach.
Reactions to Alternative Delivery Methods
The results of this study can positively affect both Extension faculty and programming as we near the 21st century. Change will continue. Demands on people's time will grow, but working people can watch a professionally produced educational videotape while riding an exercise bicycle. Retirees can study in an Extension-produced home study course at their leisure. To survive and flourish in this highly competitive environment, Extension faculty will have to regroup. Training to produce professional, educational television programs and videotapes can no longer be looked on as a luxury to do "someday," but as an immediate necessity.
Effective Handbook Production and Distribution
The lesson to be learned...is that promotion ad distribution of educational materials are of prime importance to the success of such projects. Outstanding educational materials are of little value unless they reach the intended clientele. Delivery systems for interdepartmental educational materials and projects can be successful only when their promotion and distribution are planned for, supported, and managed from the higher levels of administration. While the creators of handbooks are responsible for content and presentation quality, they shouldn't be responsible for the organized promotion and distribution.
An "Interactive" Newsletter
An "interactive" newsletter series is an effective method of meeting the needs of many adults who can't or won't attend a public meeting or series of classes. Initiating the series as a pilot project in one county enabled the authors to make significant changes i t he content of the series before offering it statewide. The evaluation revealed that respondents were "Getting It Together" and had improved their resource management skills in the areas of estate planning, household, and financial management.
International Programming Issues for Extension Education
This article discusses the results of a recent survey of Extension educators in the South about their perceived needs and the role of Extension in developing educational programs with international content. Program topics, methods of delivery, and implications for Extension programming are presented.
Expanding Our Horizons Internationally
The impact from the international arena on our lives and the decisions we make provide vast opportunities and challenges for Extension. How do we meet these challenges effectively and efficiently? Realistically, our only viable means is for current Extensionists to retool or upgrade their competencies to include an international dimension.
Participatory Evaluation for Community Development
In the past 10 to 15 years, social planners have become aware that development requires community participation. In projects where participants were responsible for the actions undertaken, conventional evaluations were protested because evaluations done by outsiders didn't capture the particular meaning that the projects (processes and results) had for its participants. This stimulated a new approach to evaluation commonly known as participatory evaluation.
Letters to the Editor
To The Point
Conflicts of Interest and the Land-Grant Mission
The system's relationship with the private sector is vital. Existing and new challenges require the public/private sector team approach to solve problems. The need to develop conflict of interest guidelines is now incumbent on each state or territory receiving Smith-Lever funds. University employees, especially research and Extension faculty, need to be aware of potential conflicts of interest and avoid such conflicts through circumspect behavior, good communications, careful planning, and diligent program implementation.
From Conflict of Interest to Communities of Interest
I fear that some may indeed miss a broader and equally important point for the system-the point that the ECOP chair chose to focus attention on an ethical question. How well have CES leaders done in leading and modeling integrity when more than half of the farmers...believe that, "...producer's ethical standards have slipped over the past 10 years,"...
A County Perspective
Consistency is needed across the organization. Look at the different entities we have to relate to. The last thing we need is another complex set of rules and regulations. State Extension directors must be sure county directors are top quality administrators.
Cooperative Extension and the Land-Grant University: A Futures History
If we in Extension expect to transform vision into reality for a Cooperative Extension System in transition, we must more forcefully address the issue of Extension's relationship to the land-grant university.
Extension agricultural programs face new challenges in building and sustaining relationships with agricultural industry groups. Industry groups now have access to better research facilities and programs than many universities offer. Many traditional Extension roles are no longer viable. The challenge is to find ways of assuring that university research and education programs meet current needs of our clientele.
Ideas at Work
Show Ring Versus the Real World
Needing to respond to the request from several ranchers to develop an Open Beef Replacement Heifer Class for the San Miguel Basin Fair and not wanting just another usual beauty contest, I developed a contest that would use the most current research-based information as the selection criteria.
Building International Bridges
Woman's Week, an Extension Program at Montana State University, has established a Japanese connection that has promising educational benefits for women in both nations. Plans are underway for a group of Montana women to visit Japan and experience their culture and lifestyle first hand. As a result of their trip to Montana, Japanese women are ready to provide a homestay experience for Montana visitors.
Starting a Child Day Care Business
As part of issues programming, the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service conducted a two-day seminar entitled, "How to Start a Child Day Care Business." In relation to the Family and Economic Well-Being" National Initiative, Extension can help establish community-based support networks to address parenting needs, including child care.
Responding to Clients
In Spring 1987, the "Kansas DIRECT Program" was started with the objective of finding resources for Kansans in the areas of business, economics, and rural development. DIRECT is an acronym for development information: referral, coordination, and training." DIRECT does the "door knocking" to find resources and information to help communities and individuals with questions when they've no place else to turn. It provides an easy-to-access, single point of contact.
Research in Brief
Time Management and Performance
This study was conducted to examine the time management practices of Pennsylvania CEDS (county Extension directors) and analyze the relationships between CED time management practices and job performance.
Extension Program Delivery Trends
Changes in Extension are affecting the preparation and inservice education of local Extension faculty. One focus of this study assessed trends in program delivery.
Home Economists Identify Research Needs
Extension home economists will continue to identify emerging issues of national concerns. Issues relevant to Extension's mission will be targeted for action. In the decade ahead, Extension agents need to keep up with current research and researchers should be given information from Extension agents and specialists on problems and emerging issues needing additional research.
Nutrition Education Makes a Difference
The perennial question for Extension educators is: Do our educational programs make a difference?" Yes, we think so in the case of our nutrition and food safety program.
Horticulture Extension Trends in an Urban State
The University of Maryland's Department of Horticulture conducted a survey to assess the impact departmental Extension programs have had in the state and which program areas were expected to change in the next five years.
Different Perceptions of Extension Advice
The preconceptions and perceptions of clients shouldn't be ignored when giving information to them. Extension needs to understand the implications of different perceptions about recommended practices in conducting educational efforts.
Financial Management Education Needed by Extension Staff
Based on the study's findings, future financial management inservice education for Extension staff should focus on risk management, retirement, and estate planning. While these areas were the three top priority areas for inservice education, this doesn't mean the remaining areas weren't important or that some agents wouldn't benefit from inservice in these areas.
Lesson Planning Strategies for 4-H Project Leaders
We can't assume volunteers share the same instructional knowledge as the Extension professional. This study suggests county 4-H professionals modify current project leader training to emphasize the lesson planning process.
Tools of the Trade
Building for Adult Learning
K. Leed and J. Leed. Building for Adult Learning. Cincinnati, Ohio: LDA Publishing, 1987. 280 pp $29.95 This book helps us learn about and from the learning environment, making the book a worthwhile investment for those serious about facilitating learning throughout adulthood.
This leaders' guide was designed to be used as a supplement to the 4-H curriculum in international and cross-cultural education.
Enhancing Adult Motivation To Learn
Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn. Robert J. Wlodkowski. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1985. 314 pp. $24.95 hardcover. This excellent resource combines usable teaching strategies for stimulating adult audiences with a balanced base of theory. The organized presentation of practical strategies for adult learning are of particular use to Extension planners and impart refreshing ideas on instruction.