The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 20.2%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

February 2015 Volume 53 Number 1

Editor's Page

In "JOE by the Numbers 2014" I report on the 2014 submission and readership rates and announce JOE's current acceptance rate: 20.2%. I also highlight the Top 50 Most Read Articles lists, pointing out that there are seven new entries on the list. And "February JOE" mentions three articles touching on the issue of climate change, two articles having a national perspective on the Master Gardener program, and the third and final installment in the "Going the Distance" series.


Embracing the Climate Change Skeptic
Dixon, Kim
Climate change is a controversial subject that is rife with skeptics. Educators and researchers should look at skeptics as sounding boards offering questions that we need to find the answers to. The technique described in this article is designed to bring skeptics into the conversation, and gain valuable insight into our practice.

Scientific Consensus as a Foundation for Extension Programming
Vincelli, Paul
Given the commitment of Cooperative Extension to science-based programming, it is important to be able to ascertain whether, and to what degree, consensus exists among expert scientists on issues relating Extension programming. This Commentary provides insights into what scientific consensus means, how it develops, and how to recognize when it exists. An example—anthropogenic climate change—is presented. However, the importance of distinguishing scientific consensus from conjecture cuts across many areas of Extension programming agriculture and natural resources, including GMOs, pesticides, environmental protection, and others.

Research In Brief

Formative Evaluation of EFNEP Curriculum: Ensuring the Eating Smart • Being Active Curriculum Is Theory Based
Natker, Elana; Baker, Susan S.; Auld, Garry; McGirr, Kathryn; Sutherland, Barbara; Cason, Katherine L.

Going the Distance Part 3: Teaching an Extension Course Using a Combination of Distance-Delivery Methods
Rader, Heidi B.; Gannon, Glenna

In the Field: Increasing Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Extension Through a Blended Project-Based Multimedia Production Course
Loizzo, Jamie; Lillard, Patrick

Evaluating Impacts of School-Based Extension Garden Programs from a Child's Perspective
Rodriguez, Mary T.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Odera, Erica; Owens, Courtney; Thompson, Sandra

Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits
Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

Effects of Colony Creation Method and Beekeeper Education on Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Mortality
Findlay, J. Reed; Eborn, Benjamin; Jones, Wayne

An Assessment of Estate Planning Among Older Adults in Alabama
Brandon, Dorothy P.; Crenshaw, Kevin

Ideas at Work

The First Nationally Unifying Mission Statement and Program Standards for Extension Master Gardener Programs at Land-Grant Universities
Langellotto, Gail Ann; Moen, David; Straub, Terry; Dorn, Sheri

Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities
Kathryn E. Dodge

Extension and the Maker Movement
Francis, Dave W.; Hill, Paul A.; Peterson, GaeLynn

Responding Quickly to an Issue: A Collaborative Approach to Drug Residue Prevention
Moore, Dale; Wenz, John; Coles, Claudia; Kohrs, Paul

Pick it! Try it! Like it!: A Grocery Store-Based Approach to Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption
Wells, Karlys; Stluka, Suzanne; McCormack, Lacey

Pre-Gas Drilling Drinking Water Testing—An Educational Opportunity for Extension
Swistock, Bryan; Clark, James

The Carbon Cycle: Teaching Youth About Natural Resource Sustainability
Warren, William A.

Tools of the Trade

A Review of Extension Master Gardener Training Manuals from Around the United States
Moore, Kathleen; Bradley, Lucy K.

Collaborating with Your Clients Using Social Media & Mobile Communications
Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.

Facebook Groups Improve Volunteer Communications
Ferree, Rhonda

Enhancing Food Safety: Reaching a Large and Diverse Population Through Online Certification
Reinhardt, Chris; Thomson, Dan

Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification
Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

Campus Partnerships Improve Impact Documentation of Nutrition Programs
Brinkman, Patricia

WSU Meat Animal Evaluation, Analysis, and Technology Team Adding Value to Meat Products from Farm to Table: A Model of Successful Extension Programming
Nelson, Mark L.; Busboom, Jan; Heitstuman, Mark; Schmidt, Janet

Designing a Mobile Farmers Market to Meet Low-Income Consumer Preferences and Needs
Monaghan, Kelly; Waite, Bruce; Dinkins, David; Johns, Tracy; Swisher, M. E.; Delong, Alia

New Atlas Features Corn Belt Farmers' Perspectives on Agriculture and Climate
Tyndall, John; Arbuckle, J. Gordon, Jr.; Haigh, Tonya; Knutson, Cody; Morton, Lois Wright; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Widhalm, Melissa


Website? Video? Facebook? Mobile App? One Group's Experience Developing and Comparing Urban Landscape Water Conservation Digital Outreach Resources
Sutherin, Stefan; Lombard, Kevin A.; St. Hilaire, Rolston
The Center for Landscape Water Conservation, a resource for homeowners and industry professionals in New Mexico and west Texas, features a primary website, a portal, with unique content on YouTube, iTunes U, Picasa, Facebook, and a mobile app. The portal was evaluated on content, usability, interactivity, and marketing. The final survey indicated a high user-satisfaction rate. The portal has 2,100 unique visitors, and the YouTube channel, at a third the cost, has 55,000 views. The mobile app has 6,500 downloads. The cost-benefit outcomes are instructive in guiding Extension educators on how to best reach their target audience using digital-based resources.

Growing Green Energy: A Review of Extension's Role in the Development of Advanced Biofuels
Haider, Nora M.; Kar, Shiba P.; Townsend, Patricia A.; Zobrist, Kevin W.
The development of advanced biofuels is expanding the possibilities for purpose-grown energy crops. Growers, producers, and other stakeholders will need a reliable source of information to assist with decision-making regarding renewable fuel supply chains. This review examines Extension's role in the innovation of advanced biofuels by documenting and summarizing Extension work in existing biomass-derived energy programs. This review highlights strategies used by Extension programs that help make renewable energy innovations successful.

Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation
Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett
Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre- and post-journaling activities, changes in camper lunch waste produced, and a retrospective post-then-pre household evaluation follow-up. Significant awareness and behavioral changes were documented with sustainability topics ranging from land conservation to renewable energy. The camp structure and evaluation design could serve as a model for Extension educators interested in sustainability outreach.

The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy
Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.
The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of 4-H youth development programming. This article discusses the findings of the West Virginia study and addresses the delivery of effective 4-H club programming that incorporates the Essential Elements.

The Impact of Livestock Exhibition on Youth Leadership Life Skill Development: Youth Agricultural Organizations
Anderson, Jessica; Bruce, Jacklyn A.; Jones, David W. W.; Flowers, James L.
A quantitative ex post facto survey design was used to determine what, if any, difference exists in youth leadership life skill development between livestock exhibitors who participated in youth organizations and those who have not. Findings include a lack of statistical difference between those exhibitors who had participated in 4-H and FFA compared to those who had not. Recommendations include youth programs evaluating livestock programs to ensure the ultimate goal of life skill development is occurring and made known to the public.

Using IMPLAN to Evaluate the Economic Contribution of 4-H to Colorado and Individual Counties
Hill, Rebecca; Goodwin, Jeff
Current economic conditions have made it essential for Extension programs such as 4-H to justify continued public investments. Past studies have examined the positive youth development aspects of 4-H, but do not look at the economic contributions of the program. Using individual record book data for the state of Colorado, the study reported here analyzes the contribution of 4-H to both the state economy and individual counties. We find that Colorado 4-H contributes over $45 million dollars and 242 employees to the state economy.

Creating a Model for Successful Microenterprise Development (MED) Programs
Bowen-Ellzey, Nancy; Moss, Myra; Blaine, Thomas W.
Communities seek to offer effective financing programs to encourage entrepreneurs and support the growth of microenterprises. Community economic development strategies have changed in recent years from traditional industrial recruitment to microenterprise development (MED), which is considered to be as a more viable, long-term strategy to create jobs and grow local economies. This article provides a framework for an effective microenterprise financing program based on the model created by a rural community in Ohio and offers suggestions as to how this framework may be used by researchers and practitioners to identify best practices in the microenterprise financing realm.

Extension Education Drives Economic Stimulus Through Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers
Neibergs, J. Shannon; Mahnken, Curtis; Moore, Danna L.; Kemper, Nathan P.; Nelson, John Glenn, III; Rainey, Ron; Hipple, Patricia
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers (TAAF) is a national multifaceted USDA program that provided technical and financial assistance to farmers and fishermen adversely affected by import competition. This article describes how Extension was successfully mobilized to deliver the TAAF program to 10,983 producers across the nation using innovative education technologies to achieve program objectives and improve the economic well-being of participating farmers and fisherman. The innovative technologies included online curricula and business planning, the use of personal business planning consultants, and linking Extension education outcomes to financial assistance payments that producers used primarily to invest in their business.

Evaluation of On-Farm Food Safety Programming in Pennsylvania: Implications for Extension
Nayak, Roshan; Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; Radhakrishna, Rama; LaBorde, Luke
Penn State Extension conducted on-farm food safety workshops statewide to train fruit and vegetable growers on Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). These workshops were evaluated using pre- and post-tests to assess the impact of the training on participating growers. Results indicate overall increases in produce growers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and intentions on GAP-related activities. However, few respondents (20%) intended to seek third-party certification (TPC) for their farms. Future evaluations should collect information on the challenges that growers face in implementing GAPs on their farms. Extension should tailor its food safety programs to meet growers' GAPs needs.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

Subscribe/Follow JOE

The Journal of Extension