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The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 20.2%.

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June 2015 Volume 53 Number 3

Editor's Page

In "Extension & Heading Hierarchy," I explain that it's JOE style to capitalize the first letter of Extension and that CES is not used. I also explain that you shouldn't have only a single subheading in a larger section That's not good style—in JOE or anywhere. In "June JOE," I talk about the two Commentaries in the issue and point out that the topics of April's two Commentaries are addressed in four articles in June.


A Call to Embrace Program Innovation
Meyer, Nathan J.; Boyce, Sherry P.; Meyer, Rebecca L.
To remain vital, it is critical for Extension to embrace the innovation at the core of our birth and success. In this article, we define Extension program innovation as driven by the productive tensions among three core program planning practices: design, construction, and evaluation. Through daily, interactive tinkering in these three practices, staff strive toward stronger program impact and creatively respond to opportunities or challenges. We discuss how an innovation approach to program planning is well suited to address three contemporary Extension program development issues. We also discuss implications of innovation research to improve Extension program planning.

Injecting Extension into the American Zeitgeist
Stafne, Eric T.
Extension is a product of times past and needs to be updated and upgraded for today's world. "Zeitgeist" is a German term that encompasses the moral, cultural, and intellectual climate that exists within a certain time and place. Defining how this relates to Extension is not easy. Extension should examine popular culture and realize that story-driven and relatable visual media, such as television and film, are what capture the public interest. Extension must tap into that to assimilate with the younger demographics. Ultimately, we in Extension are responsible for telling and being the heroes of our own story.

Research In Brief

Exploring Community Partnerships in Agricultural and Extension Education
Seevers, Brenda; Stair, Kristin

Examining the Impact of Community Size on the Retention of County Extension Agents
Young, Jeffery; Jones, Kenneth

Knowledge and Use of Integrated Pest Management by Underserved Producers in Missouri and the Role of Extension
Piñero, Jaime C.; Quinn, James; Byers, Patrick; Miller, Patricia; Baker, Timothy; Trinklein, David

Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation
Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

Improving Healthy Living Youth Development Program Outreach in Extension: Lessons Learned from the 4-H Health Rocks! Program
Kumaran, Muthusami; Fogarty, Kate; Fung, Whitney M.; Terminello, Amanda

Would Consumers Purchase a Wider Variety of Produce and Products at West Virginia Farmers' Markets if They Were Available?
Wade, Kerri; Porter, John; Porter, Brenda; Cook, Ami; Davis, Kay; Fincham, Hannah; Weatherford, Lauren

Ideas at Work

Building Sustainability in Gas- and Oil-Producing Communities
Romich, Eric; Bowen-Ellzey, Nancy; Moss, Myra; Bond, Cindy; Civittolo, David

Using Maps in Web Analytics to Evaluate the Impact of Web-Based Extension Programs
Veregin, Howard

Using Evaluation to Guide and Validate Improvements to the Utah Master Naturalist Program
Larese-Casanova, Mark

Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection
Koukel, Sonja

Empowering Youth to Take Charge of School Wellness
Hughes, Luanne J.; Savoca, LeeAnne; Grenci, Alexandra

Hands-On Training Emphasized in the Oregon Master Beekeeper Program
Breece, Carolyn; Sagili, Ramesh

Tools of the Trade

Strategic Directions for Extension Health and Wellness Programs
Rodgers, Michelle; Braun, Bonnie

You and Health Insurance: Making a Smart Choice for Farm Families
Riportella, Roberta; O'Neill, Barbara

The Oil and Gas Boom: Basic Information About Oil and Gas Activities for Extension Professionals
Peek, Gina G.; Penn, Chad J.; Sanders, Larry D.; Shideler, Dave; Ferrell, Shannon L.

Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming
Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

TechXcite: Discover Engineering—A New STEM Curriculum
Sallee, Jeff; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Swint, Sherry; Meek, Amanda; Ybarra, Gary; Dalton, Rodger

Using Google Trends for Search Engine Optimization of Extension Internet Content
Parish, Jane A.

VetPestX: Finally! An Online, Searchable, Pesticide Label Database Just for Pests of Animals
Ferguson, Holly J.; Gerry, Alec C.; Talley, Justin L.; Smythe, Brandon

On-Line Pesticide Training with Narrated PowerPoint Presentations
Johnson, Steven B.

Estrus Synchronization Planner Spreadsheet Helps Beef Producers Implement Artificial Insemination Programs
Johnson, Sandy; Dahlke, Garland

The Rise: Creativity, the Gift of Failure and the Search for Mastery—A Book Review
Gwin, Toni


Opportunities for Extension: Linking Health Insurance and Farm Viability
Inwood, Shoshanah
Extension has a crucial role to play in educating Americans about their new choices under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Health insurance is a cross-cutting issue that touches on multiple Extension program areas. This article draws on national survey research and interviews with farmers at the rural-urban-interface conducted prior to the ACA to consider the potential influence of the ACA on the food and agriculture sector and the role of both Agriculture and Consumer and Family Science Extension programing in assisting farmers with ACA reforms.

Determining Extension's Role in Controversial Issues: Content, Process, Neither, or Both?
Goerlich, Dan; Walker, Martha A.
Controversial issues offer Extension faculty opportunities to facilitate community dialogue and apply conflict resolution strategies to help communities achieve higher ground. Handled appropriately, the long-term benefits to the community, the Extension organization, and the faculty member of facilitating public issues outweigh the costs. This article explores Extension's place in facilitating public issues dialogue and provides an initial first step in the decision-making process regarding what Extension's role should be. An approach is proposed that can help faculty decide whether to respond to an issue with content, process, or a more comprehensive approach.

Evidence-Based Programming Within Cooperative Extension: How Can We Maintain Program Fidelity While Adapting to Meet Local Needs?
Olson, Jonathan R.; Welsh, Janet A.; Perkins, Daniel F.
In this article, we describe how the recent movement towards evidence-based programming has impacted Extension. We review how the emphasis on implementing such programs with strict fidelity to an underlying program model may be at odds with Extension's strong history of adapting programming to meet the unique needs of children, youth, families, and communities. We describe several techniques that Extension professionals can use to balance program fidelity and adaptability. We suggest that Extension stakeholders may be best served when we tailor certain aspects of interventions without changing the intervention's core components that are responsible for positive outcomes.

Program Development from Start-to-Finish: A Case Study of the Healthy Relationship and Marriage Education Training Project
Futris, Ted G.; Schramm, David G.
What goes into designing and implementing a successful program? How do both research and practice inform program development? In this article, the process through which a federally funded training curriculum was developed and piloted tested is described. Using a logic model framework, important lessons learned are shared in defining the situation, identifying and maximizing inputs, clarifying and tracking outputs, and documenting and reporting outcomes.

Common Evaluation Tools Across Multi-State Programs: A Study of Parenting Education and Youth Engagement Programs in Children, Youth, and Families At-Risk
Payne, Pamela B.; McDonald, Daniel A.
Community-based education programs must demonstrate effectiveness to various funding sources. The pilot study reported here (funded by CYFAR, NIFA, USDA award #2008-41520-04810) had the goal of determining if state level programs with varied curriculum could use a common evaluation tool to demonstrate efficacy. Results in parenting and youth engagement indicated that with effort to select valid and reliable measures, it is possible to use common measure across curricula. Lessons learned including evaluating goodness of fit are discussed in regards to the process of conducting common measures evaluations.

Extension Agent Knowledge and Programming Behaviors Regarding Healthy Lifestyles Education in Georgia
Lynch, Dana R.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Hanula, Gail M.
Healthy lifestyles education (HLE) is defined as nutrition and physical activity education aimed at controlling or preventing serious health issues. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine knowledge and behaviors of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences (FACS) and 4-H agents concerning HLE. Eighty-five and 86% of FACS and 4-H agents, respectively, were likely to address HLE if high-quality curriculum/materials were available. Barriers related to implementing HLE were: communicating with parents; parents' lack of interest; and lack of curriculum resources. All agents, regardless of programming responsibility, should model healthy lifestyles behaviors to be effective change agents.

Organizational Values in Ohio State University Extension: Employee Perceptions of Value and Evidence in Practice
Argabright, Karen J.; Cochran, Graham R. ; King, Jeff
As Extension's leaders prepare to move Extension into the future, they are obliged to take stock of the underlying internal forces that have the power to alter the manner and extent to which the mission is accomplished. Individually and organizationally held values are primary factors driving these forces. Acknowledging and understanding these values helps Extension leaders better understand tendencies toward resistance to change and aid in assessing the alignment of what exists with what could be. This article shares results from an Extension organizational values assessment and examine implications for the Extension system.

The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development
Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.
The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life skills at the start of the program and were more likely to change in these areas during the year than their male counterparts. This suggests changes in program designs may be needed to better engage, retain, and affect males in life skill development.

Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers
Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred;
This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web resources, personal experience, books, organic buyers/certifiers, and consultants. Results suggest that grower-to-grower networking is a highly effective information-seeking behavior for organic growers. Recommendations for Extension personnel include reshaping educational programing for organic growers to include peer-to-peer information sharing, as well as increased investment to graduate and undergraduate programs that train future Extension agents in organic production approaches.

Managing Dynamics of Power and Learning in Community Development: A Case Study of Iowan Farmers in Uganda
Stephen, Lauer; Owusu, Francis Y.
Extension professionals facilitate community development through the strategic manipulation of learning and power in peer-to-peer learning partnerships. We discuss the relationship between empowerment and power, highlight relevant literature on the difficulties power presents to learning and the efficacy of service learning tools to facilitate mutual learning and present original findings from our research on an international development partnership in which Extension professionals had partial success in creating opportunities for mutually empowering learning among farmers from Iowa and Uganda. We recommend that Extension professionals encourage learning across power gradients by providing opportunities for informal conversations and encouraging reflection by participants.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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