Welcome to the Journal of Extension
The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.
JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.
The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 27.8%.
For 50 years, the Journal of Extension (JOE) has shared knowledge and enriched Extension due in large part to the outstanding support of State Cooperative Extension Directors. Directors support JOE through annual subscriptions/assessments of $700 to $1,400 per institution, according to their institutions' total number of Extension FTEs. The rates remain incredibly reasonable. For my institution, the University of Tennessee Extension, an outlay of just $2.00 per FTE per year helps fund JOE, a great investment in professional development. We continue to keep costs so low due to our aggressive use of cost recovery from our National Job Bank.
The State Extension Directors also appoint six representatives to the Extension Journal, Inc. Board of Directors, representing the Southern, Northeast, Western, North Central, 1890, and 1994 institutions. The representatives provide leadership for board operations and strategic planning. Without this level of support JOE would not be possible. The Journal of Extension remains a rigorous, refereed journal for Extension professionals. Thank you, State Extension Directors!
Joseph L. Donaldson
President, Extension Journal, Inc.
October 2013 Volume 51 Number 5
A View of Digital Scholarship in Extension
Stafne, Eric T.
Methods for Extension personnel to engage clientele are developing rapidly. Social media and online content are used by eXtension members to generate information and deliver it quickly. These methods are found useful by information consumers; however, many universities fail to adequately address them in the promotion and tenure process. Engaged eXtension members understand the importance of using digital methods, yet career value of the effort is unclear. This ambiguity has caused participation issues within eXtension Communities of Practice. A new examination of how Extension content is valued by the consumer and by colleagues within the academic arena is warranted.
A Return to the Basics: The Solution for eXtension
King, Dave; Boehlje, Mike
Engagement must be the overarching goal of the land-grant system. eXtension continues to have phenomenal potential to allow new and expanded audiences access to Extension expertise and solutions, and be a driver of expanding engagement in the land-grant system, but stakeholders are asking difficult questions. If successful, eXtension could transform and expand the land-grant engagement mission. But eXtension's success is not assured. This Commentary, endorsed by a dozen Extension leaders nationwide, provides specific suggestions for how eXtension can survive and lead that transformation.
Research In Brief
Measuring Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences: The Redevelopment of an Instrument to Determine Individual and Collective Preferences—A Pilot Study
Sanagorski, Laura; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner, James R.
Use of Pictorial Evaluations to Measure Knowledge Gained by Hispanic Landscape Workers Receiving Safety Training
Bauske, Ellen M.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Martinez-Espinoza, Alfredo D.; Orellana, Rolando
Perceived Barriers to Savings Among Low- to Moderate-Income Households That Do Not Save Regularly
Mauldin, Teresa; Bowen, Cathy Faulcon; Cheang, Michael
Comprehensive Land Use Planning in Exurban Communities: A Case Study from Ohio
Blaine, Thomas W.; Moss, Myra; Cumming, Julia; Myers, Janet Wasko
Characteristics of Non-Industrial Private Forest Owners Interested in Managing Their Land for Nontimber Forest Products
McLain, Rebecca; Jones, Eric T.
Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning Within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs
Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia
Testing the Use of Natural Schoolyards to Develop Stewardship Attitudes in Students
Nelson, Nicole; Shaw, Bret R.
Comparing Three Different Methods for Assessing Corn Silage Density
Norell, Richard J.; Hines, Steve; Chahine, Mireille; Fife, Tianna; Marti, Mario De Haro; Parkinson, Stuart C.
Ideas at Work
Coaching: A Tool for Extension Professionals
Using a Hybrid Approach for a Leadership Cohort Program
Norman, Maxine A.
The Family-Environment Connection: Filling a Nationwide Program Gap
Santiago, Anthony; Franz, Nancy; Christoffel, Rebecca; Cooper, Kristi; Schmitt, Brenda
Summer Youth Forestry Institute
Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin
Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua
Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod
Tools of the Trade
Cate-Nelson Analysis for Bivariate Data Using R-project
Mangiafico, Salvatore S.
The American Community Survey: Resources for the Occasional Data User
Zimmerman, Julie N.
Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program
Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.
Developing a Customized GIS-Based Spatial Statistics Tool: An Application to Emergency Planning and Response
Schilling, Brian J.; Marxen, Lucas J.
Photo-Guided Tracing: A Low-Cost Method for Monitoring Targeted Plant Species
Horney, Marc R.; Spiess, Michael
Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals
Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura
Measuring Light with Useful Tools
Peek, Gina; Hebert, Paulette; Frazier, Robert Scott; Kang, Mihyun
Using Current Resources to Implement Wellness Programming for Preschoolers
Cirignano, Sherri M.
Experts, Extension, and Democracy: A Prospectus for a New Urban Grant
Jacob, John S.
Modern democracy cannot survive without effective citizen participation. The complexity of modern post-industrial life, unfortunately, is an impediment to participation. A new urban grant might be our best hope to enable real citizen participation in modern urban America, but Extension professionals would have to reach deep into our own past to resurrect a participatory ethos and even farther into early American history for models of civic professionalism. A new urban grant would expand well beyond agriculture and embrace the recent calls for an "energy grant," a climate Extension service, and a hazard mitigation Extension service, among others.
Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio
Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.
The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that CRED resources are primarily being allocated to regional or campus-based personnel, with fewer county-based positions. It provides information for CRED Extension professionals and administrators useful in identifying potential program weaknesses, strengths, and potential opportunities, while enabling them to better articulate the value of CRED Extension programming in an age of budgetary constraints and competition.
An Integrated Approach to Supplying the Local Table: Perceptions of Consumers, Producers, and Restaurateurs
Wise, Dena; Sneed, Christopher; Velandia, Margarita; Berry, Ann; Rhea, Alice; Fairhurst, Ann
The Local Table project compared results from parallel surveys of consumers and restaurateurs regarding local food purchasing and use. Results were also compared with producers' perception of, capacity for and participation in direct marketing through local venues, on-farm outlets, and restaurants. The surveys found consumers' and restaurateurs' most common expectations of local foods are that they be environmentally safe and sustainably produced and distributed—all socially-conscious reasons for their purchases. The study informs Extension educators by providing a snapshot of supply and demand for local food products across three distinct groups—producers, restaurateurs and consumers.
Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Local Food Procurement in Publicly Funded Institutions
Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema
Community-Based Social Marketing is presented as a technique to add to Extension's community economic development toolbox by examining perceived benefits and barriers to local food procurement at publicly funded institutions. Data were gathered through 86 in-person interviews with representatives across the supply chain. The findings revealed that supporting the local economy and freshness were two benefits common across the supply chain. Distribution, supply, price, and habit were common barriers. Benefit-barrier analysis can aid Extension professionals in providing context, teaching business skills, recognizing opportunities, shaping institutional structures, accessing markets, and informing the development of Communities of Practice.
Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry
Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor; Chapman, Benjamin
Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis management preparation. A self-reported pre-assessment demonstrated that 21% of participants had a crisis management plan in place prior to attendance, with 79% who employed GAPs. Following the role-play scenario, there was a significant increase in participants' perception of the likelihood of microbial contamination with their product and an increase in crisis planning activities.
Planning Across Generations: Helping Family Landowners Maintain Their Ties to the Land
Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Allred, Shorna Broussard; Landgren, Chal; Sisock, Mary
Many land-owning families face the difficult challenge of maintaining their property in family ownership, an issue deserving greater attention among Extension educators. In the longitudinal study reported here we assessed the effectiveness of an educational program in helping family woodland owners prepare to pass land on to the next generation and found an impact on participants' reported behavior. About 18-months after the Ties to the Land workshop, 71% of respondents reported taking at least one succession planning action as a result their participation.
Affecting Community Change: Involving Pro Bono Professionals as Extension Volunteers
Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III
Pro bono volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while simultaneously meeting the desired outcome of the Extension program requires effective communication with the corporation as well as the pro bono volunteer. To develop a pro bono volunteer program, Extension professionals should: identify shared outcomes; build collaboration; and effectively communicate how pro bono service provides an opportunity to achieve goals while meeting programming outcomes.
Extension's Capacity to Deliver Quality Early Childhood Professional Development
Durden, Tonia R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Gerdes, Jennifer; Lodl, Kathleen
In recent years much attention has focused on the role of enhancing a teacher's professional knowledge and skills in helping to improve the quality of early care experiences for young children birth-5. In the study reported here, an environmental scan of the early childhood professional development programs offered within the Extension system was conducted to identify the programs' content, delivery, scope, evaluation, and partners. Results indicate that Extension has been a player in providing professional development opportunities for early childhood professionals and with a focused effort in streamlining the current resources has the capacity to become a leader in this field.
The Prize Is Healthy Eyes: Using Games to Educate About Diabetic Retinopathy
Stastny, Sherri N.; Garden-Robinson, Julie
This article describes a program for prevention of diabetic retinopathy (DR) that was designed for Extension in collaboration with optometrists. The program was created to increase knowledge and awareness about risk factors for DR and included a game and take-home materials. Participants were asked to play a game similar to Wheel of Fortune. A total of 89% of questions were answered correctly. A telephone survey was used to track retention of knowledge and revealed that participants had used increased knowledge to make positive lifestyle changes. Of individuals who participated in the interactive game, measurable improvements in knowledge and awareness occurred.
Bringing the DuPont Profitability Model to Extension
Roucan-Kane, Maud; Wolfskill, L. A.; Boehlje, Michael D.; Gray, Allan W.
This article discusses a financial training program used by Deere and Company for almost 10 years. The objective is to describe the program and to discuss a pre-test/post-test methodology to test the effectiveness of a program for possible duplication by Extension. Results show that participants significantly improved from the pre-test to the post-test regardless of participants' demographics, which is critical to stakeholders to maintain funding. However, from an application standpoint there was still room for improvement. The article discusses several ways for Extension agents to overcome this.