The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Debbie Allen.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 20.2%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

December 2015 Volume 53 Number 6

Editor's Page

"Help for JOE Authors Offers Just That" urges authors to take advantage of the help on offer. I say "A Quick Goodbye." "December JOE" highlights just six articles in an outstanding issue.


Envisioning New Roles for Land-Grant University Extension: Lessons Learned from Climate Change Outreach in the Midwest
Prokopy, Linda S.; Power, Rebecca
Recent surveys with farmers, Extension personnel, and agricultural advisors reveal interesting findings about climate change beliefs and who people trust for climate related information. Based on these results this article discusses a new direction for land-grant university Extension and research in addressing issues related to climate change and agriculture.

Whither Leadership, Whither Extension?
Johnson, Steven B.
Management and leadership in Extension have long been discussed. Leadership within Extension may not have evolved at the same rate as current issues. The current approach may not ensure success in future years. A new perspective on the current leadership approaches may be overdue. Leadership needs to go hand in hand with management, but one without the other rarely results in success. Weak or absent leadership forces the void to be filled by multiple individuals, leading to a lack of organizational cohesion. Worse yet, a dysfunctional organization may result. Many may have already recognized this and are leading from within.

Research In Brief

Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension
Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

Residents' Perceptions Toward Utility-Scale Wind Farm Development
Campbell, Joseph; Romich, Eric

Evaluating the Mentor-Mentee Relationship in the 4-H Tech Wizards Program
Toelle, Andy; Terry, Bryan D.; Broaddus, Brent; Kent, Heather; Barnett, Lauren

Youth Representation on County Government Committees: Youth in Governance in Kenosha County, Wisconsin
Calvert, Matthew; de Montmollin, John; Winnett, Tedi

Perspectives of Extension Agents and Farmers Toward Multifunctional Agriculture in the United States Corn Belt
Doudna, John W.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Tyndall, John C.; Helmers, Matthew J.

Ideas at Work

The Youth Writers: Developing Curriculum for Their Peers
Krehbiel, Michelle; Fenton, Melissa S.; Fairchild, Patricia J.

Exploring the Effectiveness of a Retreat Method for Extension Staff
Worker, Steven M.; Hill, Russell D.; Miller, JoLynn C.; Go, Charles G.; Boyes, Rita J.

An Agent Allocation System for the West Virginia University Extension Service
Dougherty, Michael John; Eades, Daniel

Systematic Approach to Food Safety Education on the Farm
Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

Cooking Matters at the Store: A Case Study of Three Missouri Counties
Bess, Melissa M.

Tools of the Trade

Writing Panels Articulate Extension Public Value in the West
Carroll, Jan. B.; Dinstel, Roxie Rogers; Manton, Linda Marie

Identifying Critical Thinking Styles to Enhance Volunteer Development
Gay, Keegan D.; Terry, Bryan; Lamm, Alexa J.

Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs
Jayaratne, K. S. U.

Application of IMPLAN to Extension Programs: Economic Impacts of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Spending
Kerna, Ashley; Frisvold, George; Jacobs, Laurel; Houtkooper, Linda; Misner, Scottie

Use of Interactive Electronic Audience Response Tools (Clickers) to Evaluate Knowledge Gained in Extension Programming
Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

"Clickers" and HACCP: Educating a Diverse Food Industry Audience with Technology
Shaw, Angela; Mendonca, Aubrey; Daraba, Aura

Helping Farmers Access Farmland: New Jersey's New Land Link Website
Schilling, Brian J.; Marxen, Lucas J.; Everett, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Camille L.; Kimmel, David A.; Cook, Justine C.

Infographics: An Innovative Tool to Capture Consumers" Attention
Niebaum, Kelly; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Carroll, Jan; Bellows, Laura

Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1—Biological Health Benefits)
Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

Opportunities and Best Practices to Support Sustainable Production for Small Growers and Post-Harvest Processors in Southern California
Cinzia, Fissore; Daniel F., Duran; Robert, Russell


Extension Professionals and Community Coalitions: Professional Development Opportunities Related to Leadership and Policy, System, and Environment Change
Smathers, Carol A.; Lobb, Jennifer M.
Community coalitions play an important role in communitywide strategies to promote health and wellbeing, and Extension professionals may provide leadership, technical assistance, and other support to coalitions. Extension professionals across a Midwestern state were invited to participate in an online survey about their coalition involvement and related training needs. The results of the study reported here describe the nature of Extension professionals' work within community coalitions; identify gaps in knowledge particularly related to policy, system, and environment change (PSEC) strategies; and point to professional development opportunities that will improve Extension's ability to work effectively within community coalitions.

From Kickoff to Handoff: Coaching Teens to Tackle STEM Literacy
Ripberger, Chad; Blalock, Lydia B.
This article discusses how intensive, content-rich, multiple-day conferences for teams of youth and their adult coaches can be used to initiate the training and planning needed for teens to successfully serve as STEM teachers. The concepts are based on three 4-H "teens as teachers" projects that included 29-36.5 hour initial training conferences. Teenagers (173) completed pre/post surveys on STEM knowledge, skills, careers, resources, and teaching ability. The teenagers exhibited increases in these areas for all three conferences. The authors discuss the common elements of these conferences, provide implementation examples and suggest resources that support this type of training.

Best Practices in Community Garden Management to Address Participation, Water Access, and Outreach
Drake, Luke; Lawson, Laura
As community gardens expand across the U.S., Extension professionals can support them not only in horticultural education but also in planning and organization. Knowledge of community garden management is helpful in this regard. Existing research focuses on outcomes and criteria for successful gardens, but is less clear about how community gardens work. We use ethnographic methods to examine community garden management in New Jersey. Spatial and social contexts shape key issues such as water access, participation, and horticultural techniques. Extension professionals can more effectively support community gardens by tailoring their advice to these contexts.

Incorporating Nutrition Education Classes into Food Pantry Settings: Lessons Learned in Design and Implementation
Hardison-Moody, Annie; Bowen, Sarah; Bloom, J. Dara; Sheldon, Marissa; Jones, Lorelei; Leach, Brandi
The project reported here evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition education at food pantries. We offer best practices for future Extension-based nutrition programming with this clientele. Three classes were offered at food pantries through the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Entry and exit surveys were collected for each series, including 24-hour food recalls. Seventy-three percent of participants reported an increase in vegetable consumption, and 82% reported positive changes in consumption of at least one food group. Nutrition education in food pantries is promising, particularly for Extension-led programs like SNAP-Ed and EFNEP, to address nutrition behaviors among food insecure populations.

Motivations of Volunteer Leaders in an Extension Exercise Program
Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha
This article describes findings from a qualitative study of volunteer leaders in the StrongWomen strength training program in Arkansas. The study explored reasons volunteers initially agreed to serve, perceptions of volunteer role, and motivations for continuing to lead strength training groups long-term. Findings suggest a combination of factors supporting volunteer engagement: personal benefit of program, desire to continue program combined with a personal invitation to volunteer extended by the agent, desire to support a co-leader, and exercise and social support needs met through volunteer service. Motivations of Extension health program volunteers are important to address to maximize program impact.

Colorado's AgrAbility Project's Effects on KASA and Practice Changes with Agricultural Producers and Professionals
Fetsch, Robert J.; Jackman, Danielle M.
Disability rates resulting from work-related injuries remain steadily high among farmers and ranchers. To address the gap in services within this population, USDA implemented AgrAbility nationally. Using part of Bennett's hierarchical model, the current study evaluated the KASA and practice change levels of 401 farmers and ranchers and compared them to the levels of 401 AgrAbility professionals who participated in Colorado AgrAbility Project workshops (1998-2013). Results indicated that although KASA and practice change levels decreased somewhat from immediately following the workshop to follow-up, 90%-98% of participants reported KASA improvements 4 months afterwards. Implications are discussed.

Zoonotic Diseases—Fostering Awareness in Critical Audiences
Van Metre, David C.; Morley, Paul S.
Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are shared between humans and other vertebrate animals. Extension professionals often serve as consultants and educators to individuals at high risk of zoonotic diseases, such as participants in 4-H livestock projects. Effective education about zoonotic diseases begins with an awareness of the multitude of challenges that health care professionals face in diagnosing zoonotic disease. This review describes the factors that influence diagnosis of these diseases, as well as potential methods that the Extension professional can use to convert those challenges into effective educational messages.

The Journal of Extension

Debbie Allen
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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