Welcome to the Journal of Extension
The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.
JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.
The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 20.2%.
August 2015 Volume 53 Number 4
Timberline Manifesto: Seven Concepts Linking Extension and Engagement
Reed, A. Scott; Swanson, Louis; Schlutt, Fred
Though positioned within universities, Cooperative Extension Services don't have a history of linking effectively to other institutional missions. Extension's emergent role in engaging the entire university provides an opportunity to demonstrate leadership by growing a culture of engaged scholarship and involving matriculated students in Extension work. Other innovative connections can create or strengthen robust relationships between sources and applications of knowledge. This commentary reflects the views of 45 participants at an event designed to look forward toward Extension's second century.
Evaluating Horticultural Site Visits and Individual Teaching Activities in Extension
Warner, Laura A.
Horticultural Extension professionals spend much time and effort on one-on-one email, telephone, office, and on-site consultations. This group has expressed challenges in evaluating the many landscape site visits and other individual consultations they conduct and may report these activities as only participatory contacts even when they result in greater levels of outcome. Time constraints and diversity of individual contact teaching are major barriers to evaluating this activity, while building cooperative relationships and demonstrating environmental and financial outcomes are major benefits. This commentary emphasizes the importance of focusing on evaluating this area and provides recommendations for practice and further resource development.
Research In Brief
Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies
Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.
StrongWomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants
Kumar Chaudhary, Anil; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn
Perceived Effects of Community Gardening in Lower Mississippi Delta Gardening Participants
Landry, Alicia S.; Chittendon, Nikki; Coker, Christine E. H.; Weiss, Caitlin
The Factors That Influence the Involvement of Youth in Pennsylvania 4-H Extension District 16 Livestock Programs
Weikert, Ben; Hoover, Tracy; Radhakrishna, Rama; Swinker, Ann
Linking Agricultural Landowners with Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Interior Northwest: Resources for Extension
Gwin, Lauren; Pomeroy, Alaina
Ideas at Work
The Case for a Paradigm Shift in Extension from Information-Centric to Community-Centric Programming
Strong, Emma; Rowntree, Jason; Thurlow, Kable; Raven, Matt R.
Partnering with Private Industry—Ground Rules for Working Together
Romich, Eric; Campbell, Joseph
Developing a Community-Designed Healthy Urban Food System
Fox, Julie; Colbert, Susan; Hogan, Mike; Rabe, Marilyn; Welch; Haught, Stacy
Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model
Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha
Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences
Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna
Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth
Horton, Robert L.; House, Patty L.
4-H Southern Swines Feral Hog Challenge
Gioeli, Kenneth T.; Munyan, Susan; Adams, Lindsay; Huffman, Joanna; Russakis, Elizabeth; Vachon, Edna
Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers
Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant
Tools of the Trade
Issues in Health Reform: Using a Blog to Inform Professionals and the Public
Developing Effective Educational Materials Using Best Practices in Health Literacy
Niebaum, Kelly; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Bellows, Laura
The Social Media Marketing Map (Part 1): A Tool to Empower the Digital Leaders of Extension
Christensen, Amanda; Hill, Paul; Horrocks, Sidney
Using Commitment as a Tool to Promote Behavior Change in Extension Programming
Martin, Emmett; Warner, Laura A.
Making ResourceFULL™ Decisions: A Process Model for Civic Engagement
Radke, Barbara; Chazdon, Scott
Industry and Extension Partnership to Enhance STEM and Agricultural Education
Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.; Gray, Paula
Using Dice Games to Teach Hazards, Risk, and Outcomes in HACCP Classes
Oyarzabal, Omar A.
Weed Garden: An Effective Tool for Extension Education
Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.
Soil Health Educational Resources
Hoorman, James J.
Hands-On Precision Agriculture Data Management Workshops for Producers and Industry Professionals: Development and Assessment
Luck, Joe D.; Fulton, John P.; Rees, Jennifer
Food and Nutrition Extension Programs: Next Generation Impact Evaluation
Mullins, Janet; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Franck, Karen; Olson, Beth; Serrano, Elena; Townsend, Marilyn S.; Wong, Siew Sun
Grassroots stakeholder input results in relevant and timely Extension programs, but presents a challenge for performance measurement using common indicators. A balanced approach to program evaluation and reporting that is adequately valid and reliable while honoring the Extension culture of service is most likely to be successful. This article reviews recent advances in evaluation methodology of food and nutrition programs. It further describes how this evidence base informs the current set of national Extension program outcomes and indicators. Evaluation work is an essential step in documenting the public value of Extension programs.
Farmers' Engagement with Community Food Insecurity: Approaches, Perspectives, and Implications for Extension
Schattman, Rachel; Berlin, Linda; Finch Bochner, Francesca; Lawrence, Maija
Hunger is an issue of growing concern nationwide, and farmers can play a critical role in helping individuals and families gain access to healthy, fresh, locally produced food. In 2011, we conducted interviews with 12 Vermont farmers who provide local food to low-income Vermonters through a wide array of activities including sale, donation, or other means. By better understanding how and why farmers work to address hunger in communities, Extension professionals can better support them to achieve the dual goals of food security and farm viability.
Low-Income Mothers' Perceptions of Barriers to Using Farmers Markets: A SNAP-Ed Initiative to Understand Access Points to Local Foods
Misyak, Sarah A.; Johnson, Meredith Ledlie; McFerren, Mary M.; Culhane, Jennifer L.; Niewolny, Kim L.; Hosig, Kathryn W.; Serrano, Elena
The study reported here describes a Virginia Family Nutrition Program's target population's perceptions of barriers to using a farmers market to access local foods. Mothers from a rural county photographed their shopping experience. Using a photo elicitation process to develop themes related to food access, the mothers identified barriers to shopping at farmers markets. The results can provide guidance to agents, program assistants, and farmers market coordinators on promoting use of farmers markets by low-income populations. The development of experiential learning opportunities to overcome barriers is critical if farmers markets are encouraged as an avenue for promoting healthy eating.
Assisting Small and Mid-Size Farmers to Increase Their Access to Markets: A Case Study of an Extension Program to Facilitate Food Hubs in Georgia
Munden-Dixon, Kate; Furman, Carrie; Gaskin, Julia; Samples, Kevin
This article provides a case study on how Extension can facilitate the creation of food hubs and connect farmers and suppliers with these hubs. To accomplish this, we conducted two surveys: a baseline survey of food hubs in Georgia and a needs assessment survey of farmers. Survey results were then translated into a web-based resource consisting of an interactive map, regional resources, and contact information for personalized assistance in order to facilitate stakeholder communication and connect growers to food hubs. Extension personnel can use this model in other locations where connections between food hubs and farmers are not readily apparent.
Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake Among Parents of Early Adolescent Children
Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Sun Wong, Siew; Boushey, Carol J. Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth
The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children 10-13y completed questionnaires. Higher education and having a daughter were associated with higher calcium knowledge; being Asian or Hispanic and born outside the U.S. were associated with lower calcium knowledge. Parents with greater calcium knowledge were more likely to engage in healthy parenting practices. These factors may be important considerations for Extension educators in nutrition education.
The Use of Focus Groups to Evaluate the Volunteer Conference of Southern States
Culp, Ken, III; Edwards, Harriett C.; Jordan, Jenny W.
Round table focus groups were used to evaluate the 2013 Volunteer Conference of Southern States. All 144 conference attendees were randomly assigned to one of 18 different round tables. A series of seven questions were discussed by the focus groups, which were moderated by a member of the Southern Region 4-H Volunteer Advisory Group. A recorder captured the discussion on a Mac Notebook. The responses from 18 networked were assimilated into a Word document, grouped by question. Qualitative data were analyzed by three raters as outlined by Culp & Pilat (1988). Input received was instrumental in planning the 2014 conference.
College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College
Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren
Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size of 268 students. Results showed 4-H alumni rated significantly higher than the comparison group on six life skills constructs. These findings can be used to show 4-H program impact and how 4-H participation helps young people prepare for and succeed in college.
Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on At-Risk Urban Teenagers
Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen
Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past participation in a similar program positively impacted knowledge gain. Further, the results indicate that behavior/punctuality also increased knowledge gain. Of particular interest to Extension educators, this article discusses the implications of examining only mean scores to assess program effectiveness, especially where prior programs have been attended by students.
The Dollar Game Curriculum: Inspiring Wealth Creation in Rural Communities
Braak, Willem J.; Lewin, Paul A.
Rural wealth creation and local entrepreneurship are emerging economic development approaches that bring back a sense of self-determination to rural communities. However, their potential is often greatly diminished by preconceived and opposing notions within the community on what drives economic growth. The Dollar Game is an innovative curriculum where participants collectively build an understanding of how innovation, income distribution and export affect their communities. Teams play different scenarios, starting with an island economy isolated from grants, subsidies, and trading opportunities and builds to a connected economy where they eventually lose ownership of the local value-chain.
Using Facebook Advertising to Connect with Extension Audiences
Israel, Glenn D.; Borger, Ruth H.; Greer, Kelly; Kelly, Susan; Byrum, Keri Leymaster; Pelham, Jennifer; Samuel, Norma; Singleton, Lloyd O.; Wells, Robert H.; Momol, Timur
There is considerable interest in using social media to reach Extension audiences. The study's main objective was to assess the effectiveness of Facebook promotion and event advertising on creating new client contacts as measured by "Likes." The results show the fan base for each county increased slowly prior to and following the Facebook ad, while it increased more rapidly during the advertisement period. Thus, Facebook advertising appears to be an effective tool to increase awareness of Extension Facebook pages. Extension professionals should consider investing in Facebook advertising to expand their fan base.