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Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 20.2%.

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The deadline for proposals is May 31, 2015, with the contract to begin January 1, 2016.

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April 2015 Volume 53 Number 2

Editor's Page

In "JOE Style on Journal Names & Table," I tell you why you should not abbreviate journal names and why your tables must have both columns and rows. In "April JOE," I highlight 10 of the articles in the April issue on subjects ranging from energy and health care to public value, ripple effect mapping, and designing effective outreach publications.

Commentary

The Role of Extension in Energy Education
Romich, Eric
Access to clean, abundant, reliable domestic energy sources continues to be a primary national concern. Vast natural resources and open spaces position rural communities across the U.S. to play a central role in future energy development. Issues related to energy development are often emotionally charged, with the potential for conflict. Extension must embrace the conflict and react to the needs of our clientele by providing information to inform decisions and strengthen communities. Looking forward to the next 100 years, it is time for Extension to adapt and mobilize research and educational programming to address critical energy issues facing our nation.

Farmers and Health Care Reform: A Challenge and Opportunity for Extension
Inwood, Shoshanah; Braun, Bonnie; Knudson, Alana; Parker, Jason; Parsons, Bob
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) presents both opportunities and challenges for farmers. There is a great deal of variation in how states are implementing the ACA, which creates confusion for individuals and businesses trying to understand and evaluate health insurance options. To assist farmers and farm workers with navigating ACA reforms, Extension can work across program areas and leverage their network of farm technical assistance providers and non-profits to enhance outreach and program efforts. Extension tax schools and wider adoption of the Smart Choice Health Insurance - Farm Families can expand the portfolio of tools available for working with farmers.

Research In Brief

Rural Health Care Information Access and the Use of the Internet: Opportunity for University Extension
Das, Biswa R.; Leatherman, John C.; Bressers, Bonnie M.

Process Monitoring Evaluation of an Online Program for Parents
Kim, YaeBin; Bowers, Jill R.; Martin, Sally; Ebata, Aaron; Lindsey, Samuel C.; Nelson, Pat Tanner; Ontai, Lenna

National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H
Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

Extension Professionals and Sustainability Practices: Are We Walking Our Talk?
Rashash, Diana; Elliott, Catherine; Madhosingh-Hector, Ramona

Rain Barrel Owners as a Piece of the Water Conservation Puzzle: Segmenting Extension Audiences Using Their Landscape Water Conservation Practices
Ott, Emily S.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Israel, Glenn D.; Gouldthorpe, Jessica L.; Wilber, Wendy

Persistence Wins: Long-Term Agricultural Conservation Outreach Pays Off
Smart, Alexander J.; Clay, David E.; Stover, Ronald G.; Parvez, M. Rezwanul; Reitsma, Kurtis D.; Janssen, Larry L.; Troelstrup, Nels H., Jr.; Burckhard, Suzette R.; Mousel, Eric M.

Farmer Responses to Resistance Issues in Corn Rootworm to Bt Corn: Qualitative Analysis of Focus Groups
Hodgson, Erin W.; Wright, Robert; Gray, Michael; Hunt, Tom; Ostlie, Ken; Andow, David A.

Survey of Pest Management Practices on Washington Dairy Farms
Ferguson, Holly J.; O’Neal, Sally; Galvin, Kit; Vásquez, Victoria B.; Yost, Michael

Effectiveness of Nutrient Management Plans on Vermont Dairy Farms
Darby, Heather; Halteman, Philip; Heleba, Debra

Ideas at Work

Long-Term Health Care Planning: A Subset of Farm Transition Programming
Hachfeld, Gary A.

The Systematic Screening and Assessment Method: An Introduction and Application
Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

Using Evaluations to Identify and Eliminate a Barrier to Invasive Weed Control
Edgerton, Angelique D.; Reichenbach, Michael R.

Development of a Florida Seafood Program Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team
Abeels, Holly; Fluech, Bryan; Krimsky, Lisa; Saari, Brooke; Shephard, Elizabeth; Zamojski, Kendra

Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H
Torretta, Alayne

Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers
Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

Tools of the Trade

Using Ripple Effect Mapping to Evaluate Program Impact: Choosing or Combining the Methods That Work Best for You
Emery, Mary; Higgins, Lorie; Chazdon, Scott; Hansen, Debra

Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes
Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

Design Clarity in Public Outreach Documents: A Guidebook for a First Detector Volunteer Network
Tylczak, Lesley; Andow, David; Borgida, Eugene; Hurley, Terrence; Williams, Allison

Know Your Audience, Ask Your Audience
McCann, Alyson; Stableford, Sue

Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State
Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

Captivate Your Audience by Turning PowerPoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content
Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

Social Media Tools for the Extension Toolbox
Parsons, Megan

Sequential Online Wellness Programming Is an Effective Strategy to Promote Behavior Change
MacNab, Lindsay R.; Francis, Sarah L.

Feature

What Is Your Library Worth? Extension Uses Public Value Workshops in Communities
Haskell, Jane E.; Morse, George W.
Public libraries are seeing flat or reduced funding even as demands for new services are increasing. Facing an identical problem, Extension developed a program to identify the indirect benefits to non-participants of Extension programs in order to encourage their public funding support. This educational approach was customized to public libraries and piloted with 15 libraries. Evaluations demonstrated that the approach was popular and effective in changing local practices. Strategies are shared for customizing Extension's public value program so that any public program can articulate short private and public value statements.

Exploring Organizational Factors Related to Extension Employee Burnout
Harder, Amy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Goodwin, Jeff
Employee burnout is a costly organizational issue with multiple negative impacts. The purpose of the descriptive study reported here was to explore organizational factors related to agent burnout within Colorado State University Extension. An online survey of county/area Extension professionals was conducted to measure perceptions of various organizational factors that may contribute to burnout. Several factors were identified as areas in need of attention, including systems, work unit climate, individual needs and values, and the external environment. Colorado State University Extension has already begun the process of using the results to make organizational improvements, which may ultimately reduce burnout.

Landowners, Bioenergy, and Extension Strategies
Joshi, Omkar; Grebner, Donald L.; Henderson, James E.; Gruchy, Steven R.
Given increased energy demand from alternative sources, wood-based bioenergy is receiving significant policy and research attention in the United States. Many private forest landowners, who are the likely feedstock suppliers for wood-based bioenergy, however, are not completely aware of its opportunities and potential positive and negative impacts. This article, therefore, reviews the existing work on status of biomass availability and landowner motivations for supplying biomass for wood-based bioenergy industry. Some educational needs of landowners and the potential role of Extension professionals are highlighted.

An Extension Case Study in Institutional Innovation: Microfinance Intermediary Formation
Edelman, Mark A.
An institutional innovation process led by Extension created a statewide microfinance intermediary. The intermediary provides business technical assistance and microloans to entrepreneurs having difficulty securing conventional credit but having workable business plans. The process included (1) gathering indicators of a problem; (2) formation of a steering committee of relevant interests to study the concerns; (3) a search for alternative solutions and assessment of probable consequences; and (4) emergence of an institutional strategy for addressing gaps. A business plan was implemented over 5 years. The collaboration created new opportunities on multiple levels for Extension problem-solving impacts and outcomes.

IT Workforce Development: A Family and Consumer Sciences Community Capacity Model
Meszaros, Peggy S.; Kimbrell, Monica R.; Swenson, Andrea
This article examines Extension professionals building community capacity in 10 counties across five Appalachian states in response to the talent crisis in the United States information technology (IT) workforce. The goal has been to transfer IT knowledge and create a supportive environment to foster interest in IT careers among underserved girls in Appalachian communities. The project, funded by the National Science Foundation, incorporates the example of Family and Consumer Sciences agents modeling the structure of Extension. Extension professionals can use this model to pioneer workforce development and community change initiatives.

Promoting Economic Development with Tourism in Rural Communities: Destination Image and Motivation to Return or Recommend
Akin, Heather; Shaw, Bret R.; Spartz, James T.
Improving tourism is one means Extension professionals and other community stakeholders can use to build rural economic resiliency. The research reported in this article evaluates what motivates tourists to visit and how they perceive of Wisconsin's Kickapoo Valley as a destination. Data are drawn from surveys collected from out-of-town visitors. Results show the motivation to find excitement and adventure, the perception that the area is clean and hospitable, and whether visitors have been to the area more than once significantly affect their likelihood of returning to or recommending the area. Recommendations for how Extension professionals might use these findings are discussed.

Managing Good and Bad Times: Extension Risk-Management Pilot Evaluation
Jackman, Danielle M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Dalsted, Norman L.;
Research on farmers and ranchers has highlighted the detrimental effects of contextual stressors on family systems, as well as assessed risk management strategies on effectively reducing these stressors. In order to investigate the usefulness of these risk management strategies, we assessed 41 participants' changes who participated in a pilot interdisciplinary Extension program, Managing Good and Bad Times: How Can Your Family Be More Resilient? Using the double ABCX family stress model and descriptive analyses, results showed increased awareness of the risks and stressors in their lives and improved attitudes and behaviors to manage economic and human risks.

Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models
Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.
Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can present a challenge; yet with tools and support this mission can be accomplished with ease and finesse.

Can an Immersion in Wellness Camp Influence Youth Health Behaviors?
Elizabeth A. Mabary-Olsen; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Foster, Randal; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Campbell, Christina
Summer 4-H camps present an untapped opportunity for advancement of mission mandates. The project reported here immersed campers in healthy living experiential learning. The goal was to improve self-efficacy and health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. Data was collected from enrolled campers through multiple survey tools. A total of 74 campers completed baseline surveys during summer 2012; 6-month follow-up rate was 72%. Camp improved intervention campers' nutrition knowledge (p<0.10) and home food environment (p<0.05). Results suggest experiential learning/immersion opportunities in nutrition, culinary, and gardening may encourage positive health behaviors and influence the home food environment.

Using Search Engine Optimization Techniques to Enhance the Visibility of Web-Based Extension Fact Sheets
Moore, Reanna; Shackelton, Elisa; Bellows, Laura
To compete in today's online environment, Extension needs to increase its visibility through search engine results. The study reported here evaluated the impact of using Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques on six Web-based Extension Nutrition and Health fact sheets by examining data pre- and post-fact sheet revision from Google Analytics and rankings on Google results page. Comparing Pageviews data pre-and post-revision, the Pageviews for all six fact sheets increased, ranging from 101% to 281%, over a 3-month timeframe. Application of SEO techniques to Extension publications has the potential to increase the visibility of Extension's credible and research-based information.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
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Journal of Extension

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