The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 27.8%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

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Extension Journal, Inc. invites proposals to provide editorial services for the corporation’s flagship product, the Journal of Extension. Editorial services required range from initial review of all submissions, to writing advice for authors, to working with reviewers, to copy editing of all issues. Please consider our invitation.

The deadline for proposals is January 15, 2015, with the contract to begin January 1, 2016.

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August 2014 Volume 52 Number 4

Editor's Page

In "Bad Style Habits: Utilize & Purpose of," I point out two of my least favorite style habits. In "August JOE," I highlight the three Commentaries, including the fourth Commentary JOE is publishing this year to commemorate the Smith-Lever Act Centennial, two articles on citizen science, and three on Google.


4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future
Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle
The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential volunteers' time continues to shrink, and the growing number of digital devices steal time. These changes demand 4-H adapt and innovate to remain relevant. This commentary examines the role that 4-H Youth Development will play in the next 100 years to face these challenges.

Moving Beyond the Program: Incorporating Healthy Living Behaviors Throughout 4-H
Franck, Karen L.; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Toman, John; Moody, Teresa
A recent national needs assessment of 4-H professionals and volunteers described the need to incorporate a holistic view of healthy living throughout all 4-H programs, thereby promoting healthy lifestyles in all clubs, camps, conferences, projects, events, etc. This commentary issues a challenge to optimize the 4-H environment for healthy living and provides practical ideas to achieve that greater vision, for better living.

The Role of Evaluation in Determining the Public Value of Extension
Franz, Nancy; Arnold, Mary; Baughman, Sarah
Extension has developed a strong evaluation culture across the system for the last 15 years. Yet measures are still limited to the private value of programs, looking at problems in a linear way and at isolated efforts. Across the country, Extension evaluators and administrators need to step up to help answer the "so what?" question about complex issues and related programming through stronger evaluation that leads to articulating the public value of Extension work.

Research In Brief

A Participatory Approach to FCS Food, Nutrition, and Wellness Program Planning
Serrano, Elena; Powell, Alicia; Strong, Kathryn; Burkett, Sarah; Stegon, Nancy

Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community
Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education
Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

Parenting Needs as Perceived by Agency Personnel Working with Parents and Young Children in Southern Nevada
Kim, YaeBin

Using Citizen Scientists to Evaluate Light Traps for Catching Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs in Homes in Virginia
Aigner, John D., Jr.; Kuhar, Thomas P.

Internet Use for Small Businesses: Does It Matter?
Gallardo, Roberto; Jacobs, Austin

Ideas at Work

Enhancing Volunteer Effectiveness with Google Apps
Terry, Bryan D.; Harder, Amy M.; Zyburt, Tonia

Making Rapid Change: Leaning 4-H
Levings, Judith M.; Nibe, Becky

Citizen Science as a REAL Environment for Authentic Scientific Inquiry
Meyer, Nathan J.; Scott, Siri; Strauss, Andrea Lorek; Nippolt, Pamela L.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Blair, Robert B.

Forestry Tour Educates Youth in North Central Idaho
Brooks, Randall H.; Moroney, Jillian

Feedlot Nutritionist Boot Camp: An Intensive Short-Course for Commercial Agriculture Graduate Students
Reinhardt, Chris; Hubbert, Mike

An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation
Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

I-WALK: An Innovative Approach to Community Walkability
Seeger, Christopher J.; Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Jensen, Alan D.; Wilson, Suzy; Levinson, Lydia R.

Training Materials Developed for Latino Entrepreneurs
Abreo, Christina; Miller, Wayne; Farmer, Frank; Moon, Zola; McCullough, Stacey

Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit—A Unique Stress Management Program That Improves Lifestyle Behaviors
Vetter-Smith, Molly; Massey, Vera; Rellergert, Linda; Wissmann, Mary

Tools of the Trade

Google Search Mastery Operators
Hill, Paul; MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Read, Nick

Google Earth: Low-Investment GIS for Extension Professionals
Huff, Tristan

A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload
Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda

Improving Food Safety Knowledge Through an Online Training Program
Dittmar, Rebecca S.; Anding, Jenna; Green, Stephen

Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators
Tritz, Julie

Developing an On-Farm Research Network: Published Work for Peers and Producers
Clevenger, Wm. Bruce; Watters, Harold D.

Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers
Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge
Francis, Sarah L.

The Use of Energizers to Reinforce Nutrition Concepts and Encourage Physical Activity
Lovett, Kathleen; Johnson, Betsy; Caskey, Mary; Pleasants, Christopher; Hurtado, G. Ali

Three Soil Quality Demonstrations for Educating Extension Clientele
Hoorman, James J.


Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness
Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.
The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed and interviewed to determine their understanding of what constitutes effective science programming in 4-H and their capacity to deliver science professional development and programs. Results indicated a need to build staff capacity relative to 4-H Science in California and outcomes may have implications for 4-H professionals nationally.

Promising Practices of Dairy, Horse, and Livestock Evaluation Career Development Event Coaches: A Mixed-Methods Study
Voigt, Melissa A.; Talbert, B. Allen; McKinley, Steven K.; Brady, Colleen M.
The present study describes promising practices of successful dairy, horse, and livestock judging coaches. Expert coaches were interviewed regarding previous experience, coaching philosophy, coaching objectives, coaching style, and advice. Twenty-seven promising practices and eight themes were identified from the interviews. A questionnaire was sent to the accessible population of coaches to determine practice usage and relationship to youth performance. Influential and motivating practices were found to be most used by coaches. Youth performance was related to use of competitive and expectancy related promising practices. Findings suggest use of promising practices would facilitate greater coaching success in competition and youth development.

A Global Worldview Among Extension Professionals: A Case Study of Best Practices for Study Abroad Programs
Lockett, Landry; Moore, Lori; Wingenbach, Gary
Globalization and diversifying communities in the United States mandate internationally minded Extension professionals and programming. The knowledge necessary for successfully working in international agricultural and Extension education is vast and takes time to acquire. A catalyst for this learning process is participation in university- or Extension-led study abroad programs. The study reported here affirms the value of best practices for study abroad programs. A Texas A&M University study abroad program to Guatemala provided additional activities before, during, and after the experience to enhance best practices in study abroad programs and to promote the preparation of future and current Extension professionals.  

Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities
Matthew C. Benson
The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs. Results also indicate that Extension professionals are interested in being involved with an average of four farm to school program activities. Results demonstrate that each Extension program area is currently involved and is interested in supporting farm to school through a variety of different activities.

Evaluation of the eOrganic Webinar Program
Formiga, Alice Krinsky; Stone, Alexandra; Heleba, Debra; McQueen, John; Coe, Michael
eOrganic evaluated webinars on organic agriculture topics to assess the size and composition of the audience, how attendees heard about webinars, webinar quality and utility, whether participants use other eOrganic resources, and the impact on farmer and advisory practices. Results showed that eOrganic webinars reached their target audience. An average of 97% of respondents indicated that the webinars improved their understanding of the topics to some degree, and 96% intended to apply information to their work to some degree. Follow-up surveys on a subset of webinars revealed that they influenced changes in farming and advisory practices.

Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits
Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.
Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest perceived benefits of gardens were their effectiveness as an educational delivery method, as well as their ability to provide opportunities for meaningful volunteer service and facilitate the development of partnerships. Greatest perceived challenges were availability of time, money, and volunteer support. Findings support the use of gardens as an appropriate educational strategy for Extension programming.

Positive Quality of Life Factors Identified from EFNEP Participant Stories
Koszewski, Wanda M.; Hlavacek, Megan; Yerxa, Kathryn; Procter, Sandra B.; Auld, Garry; Baker, Susan; Misner, Scottie
EFNEP collects stories from participants and educators regarding the program's impacts. The objective of the study reported here was to qualitatively analyze these stories in the context of quality of life. Researchers analyzed 1,057 stories by identifying key words and developing codes to best describe the information. After analysis, codes were grouped into themes. The research demonstrated that EFNEP is perceived to have positively affected the quality of life of participants. These results not only confirm broader EFNEP benefits, but suggest an additional variable (quality of life) to consider as a measureable outcome.

Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes With and Without In-Class Activities
Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten
Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time doing physical activity education affected dietary impact results and activity among participants. Standard dietary assessments showed no significant differences between groups, and interviews showed greater physical activity improvements/intentions by the experimental group, which suggests that nutrition education can be shortened 15-20 minutes for physical activity demonstrations to improve activity behaviors without adversely affecting nutrition-related behavioral improvements outcomes.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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