The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 27.8%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

The final observance of JOE's 50th anniversary is the bestowal of the 2013 Outstanding Feature Article Award. The winning article is "A National Perspective on the Current Evaluation Activities in Extension," by Alexa J. Lamm, Glenn D. Israel, and David Diehl. For more about the article, visit

February 2014 Volume 52 Number 1

Editor's Page

In "JOE by the Numbers 2013" I report on the 2013 submission and readership rates and announce JOE's current acceptance rate: 26.6%. I also highlight the Top 50 Most Read Articles lists, pointing out that several entries were published in 1984. (All JOE articles still "live" and can still "speak" to us.) "2013 Outstanding Feature Article" announces the winning article among the Features published in 2013. This award is the final observance of JOE's 50th anniversary. And "February JOE" highlights the first of six Commentaries commemorating the centennial of the Smith-Lever Act and four articles that tackle the issue of climate change.


Cooperative Extension: A Century of Innovation
Gould, Frances I.; Steele, Douglas; Woodrum, William J.
As Cooperative Extension celebrates its 100th anniversary in 2014, the Land-Grant System will be reflecting on the first century of accomplishments and preparing for a second century of education. This commentary is the first in a series of six throughout the year that will analyze the rich history of Cooperative Extension, examine its role in contemporary society, and help us collaboratively envision the future of this unique American educational endeavor.

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Their Effective Communication by Extension Agents
James, Annette A.; Estwick, Noel M.; Bryant, Audrey
Agriculture is an important sector of the U.S. economy, contributing at least $200 billion to the economy each year. It is considered to be one of the sectors most vulnerable to climate change and represents a key sector for international trade. Climate change is a global problem with widespread effects and implications. This phenomenon could make it more difficult to grow crops, raise animals, and catch fish in the same ways and same places as in the past. Therefore, it is critical that climate change messages are communicated effectively by Extension agents to farmers and the farming community.

The Merits of Separating Global Warming from Extension Education Sustainability Programs
Tyson, Richard V.
Using the rhetoric of global warming to support the adoption of sustainable practices beneficial to society limits their adoption. Climate data are about to fall outside the models used to "settle" the global warming issue. Atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase, while temperature, since 1998, has decreased. The science is becoming unsettling. Is it time for Extension educators to reevaluate sustainability programming and de-emphasize climate and concentrate instead on the many other beneficial aspects of moving toward a more sustainable future at all levels of Extension programming—agriculture, natural resources, the environment, health, nutrition, and housing?

Research In Brief

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Professionals' Climate Change Perceptions, Willingness, and Perceived Barriers to Programming: An Educational Needs Assessment
Burnett, Rachel E.; Vuola, Aaron J.; Megalos, Mark A.; Adams, Damian C.; Monroe, Martha C.

Evaluation of the Leadership Institute: A Program to Build Individual and Organizational Capacity Through Emotional Intelligence
Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti; King, Jeff; Cochran, Graham R.; Argabright, Karen J.

Factors Within Multiple Socio-Ecological Model Levels of Influence Affecting Older SNAP Participants' Ability to Grocery Shop and Prepare Food
Korlagunta, Kiranmayi; Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Payton, Mark

Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes
Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

Student Interest in STEM Disciplines: Results from a Summer Day Camp
Dillivan, K. Douglas; Dillivan, Mary N.

Use of Soil Tests for Residential Landscapes: A Survey of Soils Lab Open House Participants in Alachua County, Florida
Mylavarapu, Rao; Borisova, Tatiana; Momol, Esen; Israel, Glenn

Ideas at Work

Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education
Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth About Energy Efficiency While Meeting Science Essential Standards
Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

OSU Extension Housing Corps—Testing an Innovate Approach to Foreclosure Prevention in Rural Counties
Loibl, Cäzilia; Moulton, Stephanie

Using Web-Based Surveys to Evaluate Field Day Open Houses: The Great Tomato Tasting Evaluation
Nitzsche, Peter; Polanin, Nicholas

Feasibility of a Brief Community-Based Train-the-Trainer Lesson to Reduce the Risk of Falls Among Community Dwelling Older Adults
Gunter, Katherine B.; John, Deborah H.

Ranchers Feeding Kids: A Multi-Partner Approach to Programming
Brody, Barbara; Jensen, Scott; Galloway, Robin; Hamilton, Shanna; Chamberlain, Anna-Marie

High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement
Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

Tools of the Trade

The Virtual Extension Annual Conference: Addressing Contemporary Professional Development Needs
Franz, Nancy K.; Brekke, Robin; Coates, Deb; Kress, Cathann; Hlas, Julie

The Communicator: Electronic Newsletter Provides Expert Support to FCS County Educators
Shaklee, Harriet; Raidl, Martha; McCurdy, Sandra; Meyer, Sonya

Using Turning Point to Conduct an Extension Needs Assessment
Carlson, Bradley M.

Training Materials Developed for Latino Entrepreneurs
Abreo, Christina; Miller, Wayne; Farmer, Frank; Moon, Zola; McCullough, Stacey

Improving Disability Awareness Among Extension Agents
Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L; Grenwelge, Cheryl

Weight ~ The Reality Series: An Extension Weight Management Program for Adults
Mullins, Janet; Sigler, Pam; Miller-Spillman, Kimberly

Incubator Farms as Beginning Farmer Support
Lelekacs, Joanna Massey; O’Sullivan, John; Morris, Mike; Creamer, Nancy

Challenges of Engaging Local Stakeholders for Statewide Program Development Process
Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark

Design Matters in Community Gardens
Bradley, Lucy Kennedy; Lelekacs, Joanna Massey; Asher, Caroline Tilley; Sherk, Julieta Trevino

Partnering with Industry to Deliver Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators
Fishel, Fred


Integrating Extension and Research Activities: An Exploratory Study
Radhakrishna, Rama; Tobin, Daniel; Foley, Caitlin
The exploratory study reported here examined Extension-research integration activities. Focus group interviews with Extension and research faculty (N=17) revealed several themes, which included: current status of integration activities, perceptions of the roles of Extension and research, barriers to integration, and opportunities for integration. Time, funding, administration-related communication challenges, need for clarification regarding respective roles of collaborators, and lack of incentives and structural support were viewed as barriers. Utilizing faculty joint appointments, networking, involving graduate students in Extension and research activities, and serving on graduate student committees were strategies suggested. Based on the findings, a framework for integration is proposed.

Navigating Difference: Development and Implementation of a Successful Cultural Competency Training for Extension and Outreach Professionals
Deen, Mary Y.; Parker, Louise A.; Hill, Laura Griner; Huskey, Melynda; Whitehall, Anna P.
As our world becomes more interconnected on international, domestic, and personal levels, our need to be more culturally competent increases (Samovar, Porter, & McDaniel, 2007; Ting-Toomey, 1999). Recognizing this need, Washington State University Extension sought to increase skills of its personnel by developing a set of cultural competencies and training curriculum. This article describes the process of creating, implementing, and evaluating the training. Examples are offered to show how WSU Extension addressed quality standards for successful implementation of diversity training models as outlined by Bendick et al. (2001), serving as guidelines for other Extension organizations with similar goals.

Developmental Stages and Work Capacities of Community Coalitions: How Extension Educators Address and Evaluate Changing Coalition Needs
Nichols, Allison; Riffe, Jane; Peck, Terrill; Kaczor, Cheryl; Nix, Kelly; Faulkner-Van Deysen, Angela
Extension educators provide resources to community coalitions. The study reported here adds to what is known about community coalitions and applies an assessment framework to a state-level coalition-based Extension program on healthy relationships and marriages. The study combines the Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy (ICOH) framework with four coalition capacity categories: general, internal, external, and prevention. The findings from two focus groups, one with formation coalition leaders and one with midlevel coalition leaders, are presented. Recommendations are made for designing educational, service, and evaluation interventions to meet the needs of community coalitions at specific developmental stages.

Impact of a Middle School 4-H Science Camp on College Aspirations of Alumni
Bourdeau, Virginia D.; Galloway, Robin; Arnold, Mary; Nott, Brooke D.
This article reports on an alumni study of middle school participants in a university-based science camp; at the time of the study the youth were completing their junior or senior year of high school. The science- and technology-intensive program was set in an intentionally designed positive youth development context. The camp was free to youth who were members of populations underrepresented in science and technology careers or were from underserved areas of the state. The alumni fulfilled the camp goal that they plan to attend college after high school. The majority reported planning to get a professional or advanced degree.

e-Learning for 4-H Volunteers: Who Uses It, and What Can We Learn from Them?
Ouellette, Kristy L.; Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Lobley, Jennifer; Gross, Kerry M.
Orienting and training 4-H volunteers are critical to individuals and the organization. The two-part study reported here re-establishes the profile of the 4-H volunteer and evaluates both the format and content of e-Learning for 4-H Volunteers modules launched in 2006. Volunteers from seven states perceived that online modules made learning more convenient and flexible. Volunteers with 2 years of experience or less (84.2%) liked e-Learning modules regardless of their age. Although the profile of the 4-H volunteer has remained similar over the course of six decades, technology has successfully provided new options for reaching and preparing 4-H volunteers.

Development Strategies for Online Volunteer Training Modules: A Team Approach
Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric
Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota 4-H focuses on a team approach to the intentional instructional design process used to develop interactive and engaging asynchronous training modules for adult volunteers. The roles and responsibilities of the team members are described along with how this method expedites module development, increases quality, and minimizes costs.

Integrating Digital Response Systems Within a Diversity of Agricultural Audiences
Sciarappa, William; Quinn, Vivian
Extension educators have new computer-assisted tools as audience response systems (clickers) for increasing educational effectiveness and improving assessment by facilitating client input. From 2010-2012, 26 sessions involving 1093 participants in six diverse client categories demonstrated wide audience acceptance and suitability of clickers in agricultural and horticultural programming. Farmers, ag students, and Master Gardeners provided anonymous information using wireless clickers. Analyzed data was shared in each session. Such user-friendly technology improved pedagogy with rapid and sustained learner engagement and through enhanced peer-to-peer instruction. Pre-post assessment and re-teaching techniques provided documentation for group demographics, educational evaluation, and programmatic impacts.

Parent Internet Use During a Child's Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Extension
Petree, Chelsea A.; Dworkin, Jodi
Parents frequently use the Internet to connect with professionals and other parents for information and support, but parents of emerging adults have fewer resources to rely on than parents of younger children. This article explores how parents of 18 to 25 year olds used the Internet to connect with others, including differences by parent age, education, and income. Findings reveal that parents of emerging adults used a variety of activities for parenting and used specific activities for different purposes. Findings directly benefit Extension professionals who aim to address the needs of parents of emerging adults via the Internet.

National Outreach Programming for Landowners—Natural Resource Enterprises
Jones, W. Daryl; Jones, Jeanne C.; Grado, Stephen C.; Munn, Ian; Rohnke, T. Adam; Tullos, Adam T.; Manning, Dawn
We conducted a survey of Mississippi landowners to determine revenues collected and expenditures incurred during 1996-1998 for fee hunting on their properties (inflated to 2011 estimates). Study findings revealed that respondents diversified incomes derived through fee hunting enterprises on their lands. This information has been used to design a series of multi-state landowner workshops about natural resource enterprises development and conservation practices on private lands. With state and local collaborator assistance, we have conducted over 50 landowner workshops in nine U.S. states and Sweden and have received requests to expand outreach programming to other U.S. states.

International Study Abroad Experiences with Agents and Students: A Case Study in Belize
Stevens, Glen; Smith, Bob; Downing, Adam
The internationalization of local Extension programs has long been a source of debate among Extension educators. Often, international work is seen as extravagant during difficult economic times. Extension also faces challenges attracting qualified young people into our profession. We report the results of a combined international Extension training and student education program. This program was popular with agents and students, improved student knowledge of Extension, and made long-term contributions to the programs of agents who participated. Building the cost for agent participation into study abroad courses may benefit students, Extension agents, and teaching faculty while controlling cost to Extension programs.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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The Journal of Extension