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Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Debbie Allen.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 25.5%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQs. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

August 2016 Volume 54 Number 4

Editor's Page

Knowing that preparing a manuscript for journal submission can be daunting, I created a resource to help prospective JOE authors with their manuscript development efforts. I describe this resource in the "Manuscript Preparation Aid" section of this Editor’s Page. In "August JOE," I draw attention to articles about reaching nontraditional audiences, achieving quality programming, and ensuring that both Extension clients and Extension personnel make the most of emerging opportunities and technologies.

Commentary

One Size Does Not Fit All: Effective Community-Engaged Outreach Practices with Immigrant Communities
Smalkoski, Kari; Axtell, Sara; Zimmer, Jeanne; Noor, Ibrahim
Generic outreach approaches are commonly used to target as many individuals as possible in a cultural community to achieve a greater response rate. However, this one-size-fits-all tactic is rarely effective. Community-engaged outreach practices have been successful with immigrant communities in Minnesota's Twin Cities. When practitioners, clinicians, and scholars engage in these practices, they not only build trusting relationships with cultural communities over time but also achieve mutual benefit, reciprocity, and the leveraging of institutional resources.

Research In Brief

Inside the Black Box—An Implementation Evaluation Case Study
Rector, Patricia; Bakacs, Michele; Rowe, Amy; Barbour, Bruce

Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods
McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

Rural Hispanic Youths' Perceptions of Positive Youth Development Experiences
Goedeken, Jill A.; Xia, Yan; Durden, Tonia; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in the Mid-Atlantic States: Assessing Grower Perceptions, Economic Impact, and Progress
Dellinger, Theresa A.; Day, Eric R.; Pfeiffer, Douglas G.

Utility of the Living (Well Through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise Program as a County-Delivered Extension Program
Sowle, Ashleigh J.; Francis, Sarah L.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Franke, Warren D.

Evaluation Strategies in Financial Education: Evaluation with Imperfect Instruments
Robinson, Lauren; Dudensing, Rebekka; Granovsky, Nancy L.

Understanding Life Skills Gained from and Reasons for Youth Participation in the Tennessee 4-H Sheep Skillathon
Davis, Terra Kimes; Stripling, Christopher T.; Stephens, Carrie A.; Loveday, H. Dwight

Ideas at Work

Third Thursday Thing: A Success Story for Reaching Underserved Clients
Andries, Kenneth M.; Simon, Marion; Rivers, Louie

Developing a Marketing Mind-Set: Training and Mentoring for County Extension Employees
Sneed, Christopher T.; Elizer, Amy Hastings; Hastings, Shirley; Barry, Michael

Hybrid Teaching in Extension: Learning at the Crossroads
Hino, Jeff; Kahn, Cub

Collaboration of Extension and Grape Industry Members to Create a New Extension Publication
Stafne, Eric T.; Ingels, George and Jane; Carroll, Becky

Implementing Good Practices Programs to Encourage Production of High-Quality, Safer Produce in Mississippi
Mahmoud, Barakat S. M.; Stafne, Eric T.; Coker, Christine H.; Bachman, Gary R.; Bell, Nicole

Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience
Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

Tools of the Trade

Program Standards and Expectations: Providing Clarity, Consistency, and Focus
Diem, Keith G.

Strategies for Accommodating Extension Clients Who Face Language, Vision, or Hearing Challenges
Angima, Sam; Etuk, Lena; Maddy, Deborah

Participatory Data Collection Technique for Capturing Beginning Farmer Program Outcomes
Eschbach, Cheryl L.; Sirrine, J R.; Lizotte, Erin; Rothwell, N. L.

Extension Resources for International Trade
Seal, Susan D.

New Approach to School Health Initiatives: Using Fitness Measures Instead of Body Mass Index to Evaluate Outcomes
Phelps, Joshua; Smith, Amanda; Parker, Stephany; Hermann, Janice

Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment
Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

Organizing to Use Facebook Advertisements: A Planning Tool for Extension Professionals, Businesses, and Communities
Barnes, James

A Review of Extension Master Gardener Program Record-Keeping Systems
Dorn, Sheri

Features

The New FARM Program: A Model for Supporting Diverse Emerging Farmers and Early-Career Extension Professionals
Sirrine, J R.; Eschbach, Cheryl L.; Lizotte, Erin; Rothwell, N. L.
As early-career Extension educators challenged by societal, structural, agricultural, and fiscal trends, we designed a multiyear educational program to support the diverse needs of emerging specialty crop producers in northwest Michigan. This article presents outcomes of that program. We explore how Extension professionals can develop impactful programs that address the varied needs of the next generation of agricultural producers. We provide an overview of the New FARM program, addressing the rationale, program objectives, program logistics, evaluation results, and implications. We hope the New FARM program will serve as a useful model for early-career Extension professionals.

Getting Growers to Go Digital: The Power of a Positive User Experience
McCornack, Brian P.; Johnson, Wendy A.
Using web-based applications is an innovative approach for delivery of Extension resources. For example, myFields.info is a mobile-friendly application focused on directing stakeholders to information at the field level. Acceptance and diffusion of such applications depends on initial experiences resulting from traditional face-to-face interactions with Extension personnel. We found that crop school participants involved in an Extension training event for a web-based sampling plan showed increased willingness after the training to incorporate sampling plans in their management decisions and share relevant data with others. Specifically, our study demonstrated the value of providing hands-on experience when attempting to encourage stakeholders to accept technologies.

Accommodating Extension Clients Who Face Language, Vision, or Hearing Challenges
Angima, Sam; Etuk, Lena; Maddy, Deborah
A survey-based study explored approaches used by one land-grant university to meet the needs of Extension clients who face language, vision, or hearing challenges. In attempts to serve such clients, the greatest gaps existed for clients whose main language was Spanish, followed by those who had vision impairments and then those who had hearing difficulties. Extension professionals surveyed recommended that use of resources to meet the needs of such clients be prioritized as follows: accommodating clients who face language challenges (those whose main language is Spanish), using contractors to adapt materials or provide live assistance, and providing applicable technology or equipment.

Using Youth Participatory Evaluation to Improve a Bullying Prevention Program
Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie
We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the curriculum, we used star-sticker surveys and written feedback provided by the youths and observational field notes recorded by adults. We found that the youths endorsed activities involving active learning approaches, we should include summaries at the beginnings of lessons, and we should include wording alternatives for implementers to use to improve understanding of complex ideas. We also reduced 26 lessons to eight lessons.

Preferred Knowledge Sources for Beginning Farmers: The Case of Kentucky
Brislen, Lilian; Tanaka, Keiko; Jacobsen, Krista
This article presents an analysis of preferred knowledge sources for beginning farmers and differences in knowledge networks between "heritage" and "nonheritage" farmers. The purpose of the analysis is to support the reassessment of training, technical assistance, and other needs of beginning farmers to be able to develop more precisely targeted training and educational programming for them. Data were drawn from a series of six listening sessions conducted across Kentucky from January through July 2013. We present three concluding recommendations for enhancing the relevance of Cooperative Extension by emphasizing its role as a "connector" of available resources to beginning farmers.

The Journal of Extension

Debbie Allen
Editor
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Webmaster
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Treasurer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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