The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 27.8%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

December 2014 Volume 52 Number 6

Editor's Page

"Acknowledgments & the Oxford Comma" explains where to put acknowledgments in JOE articles and lays down the law about commas in lists of three or more things. "JOE Editor RFP" is a reminder that Extension Journal, Inc. (EJI) is inviting proposals to provide editorial services for the Journal of Extension (JOE), starting in 2016. "December JOE" highlights too few of the excellent articles in the December issue.


Milestones and the Future for Cooperative Extension
Henning, Jimmy; Buchholz, Daryl; Steele, Doug; Ramaswamy, Sonny
Milestones like the centennial of the Cooperative Extension system are significant in any organization. Milestones measure progress along a path, but can also give reassurances that travelers are on the right track. As Extension moves into the next century, we must continuously ask ourselves if it is focused and on the right path. What are some guiding principles that we need to follow? What are the grand societal challenges that need to be addressed now and as we move forward?

Interdependence: Ninth and Newest Critical Element for 4-H Positive Youth Development
Astroth, Kirk A.
For the past 15 years, a list of eight critical elements has provided a strong foundation for articulating the positive youth development focus of 4-H programs and efforts. Now it is time to revisit this list and update the critical elements for positive youth development. Interdependence is proposed as a ninth critical element that should be included. Research is cited for the importance of this element that was not included in the original list in 1998, and a call is made for a national think tank to update the critical elements.

Marijuana Legalization & Extension: A Growing Dilemma
Dodge, Kathryn E.
The legalization of marijuana is gaining momentum. Twenty-three states and D.C. have legalized medical marijuana, and two are considering it. Four states have legalized recreational marijuana, and another 11 are considering following their lead. Extension brands itself as extending research to help families and small farmers grow crops. However, because Extension receives federal funding, Extension has decreed that we not help patients, caregivers, growers, processors, or retailers raise and harvest this finicky crop. We seek to be relevant. Do we need to find a way to help our urban and rural clients deal with this complicated, current, and controversial issue?

Research In Brief

Is Our Service in Vain? Relevant Roles of an Extension Service as Perceived by County-Level Employees
Barnes, Thelma C.

Distilling Research into Actionable Knowledge: An Assessment of a Conservation Buffer Guide
Bentrup, Gary; Emery, Mary; D'Adamo-Damery, Nikki; Flora, Cornelia

Does Landowner Awareness and Knowledge Lead to Sustainable Forest Management? A Vermont Case Study
Germain, Rene' H.; Ellis, Bryan; Stehman, Stephen V.

Using Survey Responses to Determine the Value-Added Features of a Webinar Portal System for Adoption by Natural Resource Professionals
Gharis, Laurie; Bardon, Robert E.; Hubbard, William; Taylor, Eric; Gonzalez-Jeuck, Grizel

The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding
Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

Feed Efficiency: An Assessment of Current Knowledge from a Voluntary Subsample of the Swine Industry
Flohr, Josh R.; Tokach, Mike D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steve S.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Patience, John F.

The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension
Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

Ideas at Work

Google Earth for Landowners: Insights from Hands-On Workshops
Huff, Tristan

Face Time Is Still Critical to Effective Extension in Commercial Agriculture
Waggoner, Justin; Reinhardt, Chris

Farming—It's So Citified: An Urban Agriculture Marketing Campaign
Browning, Matthew; Herrick, Stacy

Serving Those Who Served: How Can Extension Reach U.S. Military Veterans?
Rowe, Amy

Personal Food System Mapping
Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

Sugar Free with Justin T.: Diabetes Education Through Community Partnerships
Thomas, Justin B.; Donaldson, Joseph L.

4-H and Aquatic Robotics
McNiell, Brian; Jirik, Patrick; Rugg, Bradley

New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents
Ripberger, Chad

Creating the Southern Region 4-H Volunteer Advisory Group
Culp, Ken, III; Edwards, Harriett C.; Jordan, Jenny W.

Tools of the Trade

Using Needs Assessment as a Tool to Strengthen Funding Proposals
Angima, Sam; Etuk, Lena; King, Dave

Crowdsourcing eXtension: Communities of Practice Provide Rapid Response
Raison, Brian; Fox, Julie M.; D'Adamo-Damery, Phil

Extension Must Adopt Mobile-Friendly Websites
Jones, J. Matthew; Doll, David; Taylor, Owen

Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV
Rice, Grant G., III

Creating Safe Spaces Within Extension Programs
Duke, Adrienne

Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity
Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

Cooking Up Innovation: A Guide to Creating a Shared Commercial Kitchen Facility
Sandkamp, Laurelyn

Assessing Irrigation Water Quality for pH, Salts, & Alkalinity
Park, Dara M.; White, Sarah A.; Menchyk, Nick

LEGO Parts Organization for New Mindstorms EV3
Ewers, Timothy


Urban Agriculture in the United States: Characteristics, Challenges, and Technical Assistance Needs
Oberholtzer, Lydia; Dimitri, Carolyn; Pressman, Andrew
Urban agriculture offers potential benefits to urban areas and has captured the attention of residents and policymakers. Some challenges of urban agriculture are unique to the urban setting, and many farmers do not receive adequate technical assistance. Based on a national survey of urban farmers and interviews, this article explores the challenges and technical assistance needs of these farms. The urban agriculture sector is one of young, recently established farms and farmers. Profitability, financing, and production costs were rated the highest challenges. Farmers also reported moderate to high technical assistance needs in many other areas that Extension staff can address.

Putting a Face on Hunger: A Community-Academic Research Project
Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda
Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county. Participants reported that food insecurity affected all aspects of daily life, increasing stress and reducing coping abilities. Results indicate that when Extension and campus-based staff partner with community groups, they can increase community awareness of and find innovative solutions to pressing community needs, such as food insecurity.

Going the Distance Part 2: Five Ways of Teaching an Extension Course: Elive, Blackboard, Teleconference, Correspondence, and Face-to-Face
Rader, Heidi B.; Hanna, Virgene; Spiers, Kent; Kienenberger, Donavan
Remote and widely dispersed clientele in Alaska create a need for effective distance-delivery programs. Extension agents often travel via small airplane, snow machine, or boat to teach face-to-face classes in off-road communities. Effective and more cost-efficient delivery methods are needed. We taught a course for beginning farmers residing throughout Alaska using five delivery methods: Elluminate Live!, Blackboard, teleconference, correspondence, and face-to-face. We evaluated these delivery methods based on five areas: accessibility of delivery method, course completion, knowledge gain, plans to use skills, and student satisfaction. Our findings will help Extension professionals design distance-delivered programs suited to their target audience.

Risk and Emergency Communications: How to Be Heard When the Message Counts Most
Kolich, Heather N.
To cope with disasters and emergencies, agricultural producers need specific information addressing livestock care, disease containment, secure storage of volatile chemicals, and other unique concerns. Effective risk and emergency communications result from a time- and resource-intensive process that begins well before emergencies occur. To influence our agricultural clients to engage in risk-mitigation and emergency-preparedness behaviors, Extension agents must build trust with the community, provide information through a variety of channels, and convey an image of professional emergency response competency.

Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H
Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.
Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H advanced youth participants' knowledge and skills related to bio-security and financial risk management. Furthermore, the project provided youth with opportunities to apply their understanding and abilities to authentic settings and extend their learning to their communities.

Niche Markets for Natural Fibers: Strategies for Connecting Farmers Who Raise Fiber Animals with Textile Artists—A New England Perspective
Lowry, Linda L.
Farmers annually harvest natural fibers from alpacas, goats, llamas, rabbits, and sheep. However, they have seen a decline in consumer demand due to the increased production of synthetics. Despite global trends of decline, New England farms involved in fiber production have increased. This article identifies niche markets for these natural fibers and provides farmers with marketing/sales strategies to successfully target these markets. Data from 2007 and 2013 suggest that the niche market of textile artists can help farmers increase their profits through direct marketing strategies. Extension professionals can use these strategies to develop educational materials and workshops.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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