The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 20.2%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

October 2015 Volume 53 Number 5

Editor's Page

"New JOE Editor for 2016" announces just that, and "October JOE" highlights too few of the 34 excellent articles in an issue that has something for everyone.


4-H and the Maker Movement
Hill, Paul A.; Francis, Dave W.; Peterson, GaeLynn
The Maker Movement is thriving, and 4-H programs have the opportunity to get involved and keep 4-H relevant. "Making" is gaining traction as a strategy to engage young people in building their science abilities. Collectively joining the Maker Movement would accelerate 4-H's national STEM goals and initiatives while enhancing the abilities of youth as they make innovative breakthroughs.

Our Role in and Responsibility Toward Social Justice
Fields, Nia Imani; Nathaniel, Keith C.
People of color have been historically marginalized and stripped of equitable access to education throughout this country—which is a form of social injustice. Social injustice describes societal inequities that marginalize groups by diminishing access to quality education and other human rights. One way that Extension can be a catalyst to minimizing social injustice is to become more aware of societal disparities. There are also programmatic considerations that can help foster social justice. One such consideration is to increase programs that enhance social capital, as they can serve as a conduit of social justice.

Research In Brief

Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors
Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

Opportunities and Challenges in a Changing Beef Industry: Results of a Statewide Needs Assessment in Iowa
Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

Knowledge Gained from Good Agricultural Practices Courses for Iowa Growers
Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

What Is the Difference Between a Calorie and a Carbohydrate?—Exploring Nutrition Education Opportunities in Alternative School Settings
Norquest, Michele; Phelps, Josh; Hermann, Janice; Kennedy, Tay

Regionalization of the Washington State University Extension 4-H Youth Development Program: Employee Awareness, Buy-In, and Communication
White, Alison J.; Teuteberg, Dan

Evaluation of Radon Outreach Programming in Chaffee and Park Counties, Colorado
Jones, Kurt M.

Ideas at Work

Old Tools for New Problems: Modifying Master Gardener Training to Improve Food Access in Rural Areas
Randle, Anne

Development and Evaluation of an Educational Display for Older Adults: Journey Through Health
Jung, Seung Eun; Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Smith, Brenda J.

Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children
Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

Promoting the Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development Through an Experiential Learning Model
Meyer, Shelley; Jones, Kenneth R.

Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study
Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

Considerations for Creating Successful Camps for Military Families
Ferrari, Theresa M.

Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators About Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops
Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

Tools of the Trade

Building Connections, Collections, and Communities: Increasing the Visibility and Impact of Extension Through Institutional Repositories
Inefuku, Harrison W.; Franz, Nancy K.

Post-Its and Priorities: A Participatory Exercise for Understanding Perspectives of Diverse Stakeholders
LaChance, James; Hunter, Mitch ; Finney, Denise

Offering a Free Online Program to Maintain Weight Over the Holiday Season
Johnson, Madison; Dunn, Carolyn; Thomas, Cathy; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Nordby, Kelly; Thompson, Sam; Myer, Sarah

Assessing Impact of Online Delivery of Turfgrass and Landscape Information
Kennelly, Megan M.; Hoyle, Jared A.

Development of a Statewide Web-Based Pesticide Applicator Certification Exam System
Fishel, Fred; Dowdle, Frank; Harlow, Erin; James, Tamara

Extending the Reach of PowerPay Debt Elimination: A New Mobile Application
Memmott, Margie; Miner, Dean; MacArthur, Stacey

Cropland Rental Tool (CROPRENT) for Agricultural Producers
Duzy, Leah M.; Reeves, Jeanne M.

Promoting Awareness of SNAP Among Iowans Age 50+ with the Wellness and Independence Through Nutrition (WIN) Program
Francis, Sarah L.; Oates, Katelyn; Heuer, Ann

A Planting Guide for Coastal Communities
Barrett, Juliana

Planning and Conducting Field Demonstration Tours
Maddy, Bruce; Gerber, Corey K.; Hillger, David


Framing a Public Issue for Extension: Challenges in Oil and Gas Activity
Peek, Gina G.; Sanders, Larry D.; Shideler, Dave; Ferrell, Shannon L.; Penn, Chad J.; Halihan, Todd
Extension professionals may be pointed towards controversial and contentious public issues. Oil and gas issues, such as hydraulic fracturing, are a challenge for Extension in many states. Public policy education is a tested method that helps Extension professionals maintain credibility and relevance. The professional can help assist communities that are divided and unable to find common ground. This article applies public policy education to oil and gas activity, including hydraulic fracturing.

A Framework for Identifying Implementation Issues Affecting Extension Human Sciences Programming
Abell, Ellen; Cummings, Rebekah; Duke, Adrienne M.; Marshall, Jennifer Wells
Extension programs based on identified needs, relevant theory, and solid research too often fail to realize their objectives. Program implementation is acknowledged to contribute to program effectiveness, yet systematic attention has not been paid to the array of implementation issues that can complicate achieving program goals. We developed the multilevel Implementation Issues Framework (IIF) to guide the identification and analysis of factors contributing to the ability of a program model to achieve its intended outcomes. The IIF can be used to complement logic models, inform process evaluation efforts for new and multisite programs, and support the implementation of evidence-based programming.

Engaging and Training Professionals to Implement Family Strengthening Programs: Lessons Learned
Scarrow, Andrea; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Futris, Ted G.
Child welfare professionals (CWPs) who attended the Healthy Relationship and Marriage Education Training delivered by Extension educators in Georgia participated in focus groups 6 months post-training to investigate what elements of the training influenced their implementation of the concepts and their recommendations for future trainings. The findings revealed three elements that influenced implementation: relevant content, interactive training, and trainer attributes. CWPs made recommendations concerning content/curriculum format, field implementation, and training methods. Conclusions included recommendations for both CWPs and Extension educators. As an unexpected outcome, results suggested that qualitative evaluation may reinforce and strengthen partnerships between Extension and other agencies.

Collaborative Research Seed Grants for Integrating Knowledges and Creating New Knowledge
Freitag, Amy
Incorporating different ways of knowing in research and management has the potential to bring creativity to environmental problem-solving through integrating ways of knowing and innovation via co-producing knowledge. To gain these benefits, North Carolina Sea Grant Extension offers small annual grants called Fisheries Resource Grants to paired fisher and scientist investigators with research ideas grounded in practical application. A decade-long retrospective of water quality-focused projects reveals the potential to successfully integrate and innovate relevant information for problem-solving, but also to lay the groundwork for future collaborative research to continue that legacy.

Farm-to-Hospital Research Findings Point to Opportunities for Extension
Raison, Brian
Extension has a history of local foods programming around farm to institution. But connections with hospitals, an industry sector with significant potential for increased local food purchasing, appear limited. Hospital outreach could provide inroads for patient and employee education around healthy eating. But does Extension know how to engage healthcare foodservice? Do hospital foodservice directors have knowledge of Extension? This article focuses on intersections at which Extension can approach hospitals to help improve health and the economy through local foods. It is based on findings excerpted from a comprehensive Ohio hospital foodservice director study (n=155) conducted in late 2014.

Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation
Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann
This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics and that there was a range of delivery preferences from active to passive, but that passive delivery was preferred. The survey results have been poor indicators of actual attendance at workshops. We discuss these results, associated inconsistencies, implications for Extension educators, and need for ongoing studies.

Using Consumer Input to Guide the Development of a Nutrition and Health Website
Bellows, Laura; Clifford, Jessica; Shackelton, Elisa
Consumers want timely, research-based information available online. The project objective was to develop a user-friendly nutrition and health website for Colorado Extension consumers. An electronic survey (n=381) was administered to current and potential Extension consumers to understand their: use of the Web and electronic devices; topics of interest; and preferred mode of information delivery. Results, in conjunction with best practices for website usability and health literacy, were used to develop the Live Eat Play Colorado website. Audience-centered websites with content packaged in small doses and delivered via multiple modalities may enhance reach and use of university and Extension resources.

Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers
Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.
A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this change indicate that a traditional in-person format was preferred in the past, but a hybrid format is preferred now. Respondents indicated the new format is more effective at providing highly desired benefits than the traditional face-to-face approach. These findings have implications for many Extension programs targeting working professionals across large geographic areas.

Using an Advisory Group to Obtain Volunteer Perspective for Regional Programming
Culp, Ken, III; Edwards, Harriett C.; Jordan, Jenny W.
The study reported here sought to identify problems, issues, needs, concerns, and contemporary trends that will serve as a basis for programming and the development of tools and resources for 4-H volunteers across the southern region. A mixed methods research approach was used to gather input from volunteers and specialists and engage them in needs assessment. The study found that while specialists and volunteers had similar rankings of volunteer resources, problems, issues, trends, and tools, they disagreed on the prioritization of needs and concerns. The needs assessment result was the identification and development of a regional 4-H volunteer handbook.

Assessing the Production Scale and Research and Extension Needs of U.S. Hard Cider Producers
Peck, Gregory; Miles, Carol
At CiderCON 2013 and 2014, we assessed the scale of current and projected production, as well as the research and Extension needs of cider apple growers and cider makers. Our findings show that cider producers are diverse in terms of geographic location, scale of operation, and experience. These stakeholders reported a great need for technical assistance from Extension professionals and were interested in having information delivered in a wide range of different platforms. We also found audience response devices to be effective at quickly gathering and analyzing data from a large number of participants.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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