The Journal of Extension -

Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of the Cooperative Extension System.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind review, and Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed by the editor, Dr. Laura Hoelscher.

The acceptance rate for articles submitted to JOE is currently 27.8%.

For more information about JOE, consult the JOE FAQ's. For more information about writing for JOE, consult the JOE Submission Guidelines and Help for JOE Authors.

June 2014 Volume 52 Number 3

Editor's Page

In "JOE Peer Reviewers," I discuss just what the title suggests, our current roster of expert JOE reviewers, and issue an invitation to consider joining their ranks. In "June JOE," I call attention to the three Commentaries, including the third Commentary JOE is publishing this year to commemorate the Smith-Lever Act Centennial, and to two more articles on climate change and three on social media.


Family & Consumer Sciences and Cooperative Extension in a Diverse World
Atiles, Jorge Horacio; Eubanks, Gina E.
The role of Family & Consumer Sciences (FCS) as a program area in Extension dates back before the Smith Lever Act of 1914. As we celebrate 100 years, reaching a new set of audiences poses a challenge to Extension. These audiences include new Americans, new family structures, urban populations, new occupations, and virtual clients from around the world. This commentary examines the role that FCS will play in the next 100 years to face these challenges.

Economic Activity Analyses: The Need for Consensus
Kirk, Dylan J.; Allen, Kevin P.; Shideler, David W.
Extension professionals have shown eagerness and creativity when it comes to providing programming justification. However, the potential for misapplication of two common economic activity analyses requires Extension to standardized economic impact and economic contribution techniques. Readers are introduced to the cornerstones of economic activity analyses and are offered interpretations on the methodology needed to conduct an accurate impact or contribution analysis. Additionally, the authors suggest several other essential considerations that need to be addressed when undertaking any economic activity analysis. Other Extension professionals should look to this article and either show support or critique the proposed interpretations.

Thinking Collectively: Using a Food Systems Approach to Improve Public Health
Morgan, Kathleen T.; Fitzgerald, Nurgul
A nation can only be as healthy as its people. The daily news reminds us that we are overweight and obese and are suffering from preventable chronic diseases and that our country cannot sustain the level of health care costs through the next few decades. Extension professionals have the knowledge and experience to examine our food system closely and carry the momentum to promote healthy sustainable food systems aligned with our national guidelines. The goal is to create linkages among food systems, public health, and sustainable agriculture in order to achieve healthier eating and healthier communities.

Research In Brief

Information-Seeking Practices of County Extension Agents
Bailey, Nikki; Hill, Alexandra; Arnold, Shannon

Hydrilla Infestations in Florida Freshwater Bodies: How Results from a Management Needs Assessment Survey Helped Develop Suitable Information Delivery Platforms
Gillett-Kaufman, Jennifer L.; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Bradshaw, Joan P.; Gioeli, Kenneth T.

U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors Among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study
Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn

An Analysis of the Impacts of the Ready, Set, Go! Program on Program Participants and the Ability to Build Community Capacity
Romanini, Carrera

Strengthening Family Members of Incarcerated Youth: A Productive Role for Extension
Brandon, Dorothy P.; Wilson, Constance; Carter, Jannie; Johnson, LaKeisha

Ideas at Work

To Like or Not to Like: Social Media as a Marketing Tool
Doyle, Morgan; Briggeman, Brian C.

Calculating the "Green" Impact of Online Extension Programs
Bardon, Robert E.; Taylor, Eric; Hubbard, William; Gharis, Laurie

Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus
Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

Effective Regional Community Development
Nesbitt, Rebecca; Merkowitz, Rose Fisher

The Sponsorship Model: Leveraging Extension Program Funds, Building Local Community Collaborations
Hachfeld, Gary A.

A Framework for Integrating and Managing Expectations of Multiple Stakeholder Groups in a Collaborative Partnership
Diaz, John M.; Jayaratne, K.S.U.; Bardon, Robert E.; Hazel, Dennis

OSU Extension Housing Counseling Services: A Comprehensive Program Package
Loibl, Cäzilia

The Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: An Innovative Model for Developing an Evidence-Informed Program for a Low-Literacy, Latino Immigrant Audience
LePrevost, Catherine E.; Storm, Julia F.; Asuaje, Cesar R.; Cope, W. Gregory

Tools of the Trade

Using Twitter to Deliver 4-H Show Announcements
Nordby, Ann

Google Search Mastery Basics
Hill, Paul; MacArthur, Stacey; Read, Nick

Maps & Apps: Mobile Media Marketing Education for Food and Farm Entrepreneurs
Fox, Julie; Leeds, Rob; Barrett, Eric

Using iPads for Extension Presentations
Zobrist, Kevin W.

Virtual Focus Groups in Extension: A Useful Approach to Audience Analysis
Sanagorski, Laura

Baleage Decision Tool for Beef Cattle Producers
Pruitt, J. Ross; Lacy, R. Curt

Developing a Promotional Video
Epley, Hannah K.

Impact of Education on Grandparents’ Actions in Raising Grandchildren
Doggett, Diana; Marken, Dory M.; Caldwell, Diana J.

Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs
White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Fair: Using Humor to Decrease Stress and Increasing Productivity
Torretta, Alayne


Forestry Professionals and Extension Educators vs. Climate Change: Implications for Cooperative Extension Programming
Jones, Christopher; Lenart, Melanie
Extension educators seeking to integrate climate science into programming must respect different perceptions on climate change. We surveyed forestland managers and owners, researchers, and Extension educators nationally to compare perceptions about climate change adaptation and mitigation management in forests (n=576). Despite differences in perception that climate change is anthropogenic, we found the professional groups were often statistically similar in supporting or rejecting specific actions and receptive to learning more about a variety of forest adaptation and mitigation practices. Our findings support a role for Extension in addressing climate change and indicate areas of common ground that can minimize contention.

Agricultural Producer Perceptions of Climate Change and Climate Education Needs for the Central Great Plains
Hibbs, Amber Campbell; Kahl, Daniel; PytlikZillig, Lisa; Champion, Ben; Abdel-Monem, Tarik; Steffensmeier, Timothy; Rice, Charles W.; Hubbard, Kenneth
The Central Great Plains Climate Education Partnership conducted focus groups throughout Kansas to gain a better understanding of farmer perceptions and attitudes towards climate change education. Results indicate concern about climatic changes, even if producers are unsure that "human caused climate change" is occurring. Participants indicated they would like access to information through Web-based programs that allow them to manipulate variables relevant to their area and situation. Participants prefer locally relevant information and identified Extension agents as trusted educators. The study provided an expanded understanding of agricultural producer perceptions that will be valuable to individuals or organizations providing climate education.

Expanding the Reach of Extension Through Social Media
Gharis, Laurie W.; Bardon, Robert E.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Hubbard, William G.; Taylor, Eric
With increasing numbers of the public using social media applications, Extension professionals have the ability to apply these same tools to connect with their clients. This article demonstrates how a social media toolset can be employed by Extension professionals by identifying how Extension professionals are currently using social media, illustrating how social media can be integrated into outreach and measured, and describing opportunities and challenges for Extension professionals enhancing their work with social media. With this information, Extension professionals will be better prepared to expand their outreach efforts using social media.

Experiential Learning for Extension Professionals: A Cross-Cultural Immersion Program
Daniel, Jenna B.; Duncan, Dennis; Navarro, Maria; Fuhrman, Nick
As the U.S. population becomes more diverse, Extension is called upon to modify its programming to meet the needs of its changing constituency. Georgia Extension created a professional development curriculum to assist Extension professionals in crafting effective programming for the rapidly growing Latino population. The study reported here explores qualitatively how Extension professionals in Georgia experienced their Cross-Cultural Immersion Program (CCIP). Through an interview-based study, three themes emerged from the data. Extension participants experienced: (1) diverse familial relations in Latino populations, (2) obstacles during programming, and (3) greater personal over professional gains through the CCIP.

Why Work for Extension? An Examination of Job Satisfaction and Motivation in a Statewide Employee Retention Study
Harder, Amy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Goodwin, Jeff
Understanding motivation and job satisfaction is important for increasing rates of employee retention within Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore factors positively affecting the motivation of Extension professionals in their careers. An online survey of Extension professionals in Colorado was conducted. Factors such as the opportunity to make a difference in people's lives, variety in daily activities, leave policies, and flexible scheduling were identified as positive motivators, but perceptions of motivators were significantly different between satisfied and dissatisfied employees. Recommendations for improving retention based on what motivates Extension professionals are discussed.

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Commitment Concerning Evidence-Based Prevention Programs: Differences Between Family and Consumer Sciences and 4-H Youth Development Educators
Perkins, Daniel F.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Spoth, Richard
We describe the results of a study designed to assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards evidence-based and other prevention programs among county Extension educators. We examined differences across educators from Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) and 4-H Youth Development. Analyses based on a multi-state sample of educators revealed significant differences such that, compared to their 4-H counterparts, FCS educators were more knowledgeable of evidence-based programs and had more favorable perceptions and attitudes towards evidence-based and other pre-packaged prevention programs. These findings suggest that Extension administrators should work to encourage the use of evidence-based and other prevention programs, particularly within 4-H.

Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data
Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert
The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment at grade 5. New members are more likely to drop out than members who have been involved for more than a year. New members who are high school students drop out at the highest rate. Returning members who are high school students drop out at the lowest rate.

Using an Initiative to Focus Programming Efforts: A Case Study of the Ohio 4-H Workforce Preparation Initiative
Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.; Arnett, Nate
Extension is facing many challenges, including increasingly complex and changing societal conditions. One method to address these challenges is to implement targeted efforts around programmatic or organizational themes organized as an initiative. We use the Ohio 4-H Workforce Preparation Initiative as a case study to illustrate how the process of focusing and redirecting programming efforts can be an effective strategy for addressing issues important to Extension clientele. We also describe in general the benefits of using a change process or model to organize such efforts and specifically how Kotter's (1996) model fits well with our concept of an initiative.

Using Focus Groups to Assess Educational Programming Needs in Forestry
Vanderford, Emily F.; Gordon, Jason S.; Londo, Andrew J.; Munn, Ian A.
Extension professionals are continually faced with the challenge of effectively communicating relevant information to an ever-evolving audience with diverse interests. Using focus group data, this article highlights specific educational programming needs of nonindustrial private forest landowners (NIPFs) in Mississippi. Findings indicate NIPFs are more likely to adopt new ideas if educational programming is tailored to their specific needs, consequently indicating the need to group the audience by their interests. Data also emphasize the importance of employing new technology as means for communicating more efficiently.

Agricultural Water Quality BMPs: A Standardized Approach to Financial Analysis
Tyndall, John; Roesch, Gabrielle E.
Addressing water quality issues continues to emerge as a challenge to be faced by agricultural interests across the Cornbelt. Agricultural Extension has a role to play in assisting farmers in complying with water quality regulations and adoption of Best Management Practices (BMP) to address water quality impacts. Despite the clear importance of financial information in BMP decision-making, often, published cost assessments are rare and lack transparency. This article provides a framework for Extension personnel who provide water quality BMP cost assessments while also highlighting financial information necessary for creating Extension publications that have transparent and dynamic financial assessments.

The Journal of Extension

Dr. Laura Hoelscher
Journal of Extension

Eric Owens
Extension Journal, Inc.

Luann Boyer
Extension Journal, Inc.

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